Research into Same-Language Subtitling

Welcome to our research page where you can find lots of information and studies about subtitling and literacy.

  • The first section is a bit more descriptive and reads more like a story (but with the necessary academic references included).
  • The second section is a technical sprint through the academic research with lots of facts and references.
  • At the very bottom, you’ll find a list of academic papers.

Feel free to choose your preference…

Version 1:  the TOTS story

Are you sitting comfortably? We need to talk about subtitles. Grab a cup of tea and a biscuit. 

We’ve got an exam question for you:

Does having subtitles appear on children’s TV screens improve childrens’ literacy?

(after all, that’s what our whole campaign is about)

If we can prove this, we should look at practical ways to ensure that all children benefit from subtitles.

If the answer is that we can’t prove this works, we should stop and find another way to help.

For the answer of proof  to be “yes” three things need to be answered in the affirmative:

  1. Do children actually read the subtitles when presented on screen?
  2. Do they or their parents keep the subtitles on rather than just turning them off again?
  3. And then the most complex question; does the presence of subtitles impact learning in ANY of the following areas?
    1. Vocabulary
    2. Listening Comprehension
    3. Language learning in general

Do children actually read the subtitles when presented on screen?


Reading along with same language subtitles is automatic amongst both adults and children. This is actually one you can try at home – try ignoring the subtitles, you can’t!

In a landmark study d’Ydewalle et al. (1991) first proved that subtitles cannot be ignored and viewers automatically exhibit reading behaviour. A later study, d’Ydewalle et al. (2007) confirmed that both children and adults exhibit automatic reading behaviour. .

Please see:

d’Ydewalle, G., Praet, C., Verfaillie, K., & Rensbergen, J. V. (1991). Watching Subtitled Television: Automatic Reading Behavior. Communication Research, 18(5), 650–666.

d’Ydewalle, G., De Bruycker, W. (2007). Eye movements of children and adults while reading television subtitles. European Psychologist: the journal for psychology in Europe, 12, 196-205.


Gery d’Ydewalle is a renowned scholar. Contact details at: 

Do children or their parents keep the subtitles on, rather than just turning them off again?


The 2020/21 study from NESTA which involved 450,000 children watching videos showed that 98% of viewers did not change the setting and there were zero complaints at having subtitles on screen. 40% of children already watch BBC iPlayer with the subtitles on without complaint.

Please see:

The NESTA/GCSEPod research summary is here


Elspeth Kirkman from the Behavioural Insights Team currently seconded to NESTA. 

Does the presence of subtitles positively impact learning?


In the US, Linebarger (2001) found that TV captions ‘evoke efforts to read’ among children, which then helps children recognise words and grasp story elements. 

Later, Linebarger et al.’s (2010) explored the impact of existing captions on children’s educational TV programming on the reading skills of 70 2nd and 3rd Grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. A treatment group of 35 children (8 at risk, 13 at moderate risk, and 14 not at risk) watched six 30-minute videos with captions. A comparable control group of 35 children watched the same videos without captions. Captions benefited the reading skills of children at risk the most. Linebarger et al. concluded that using captions for young at-risk readers can provide effective supplemental practice in word recognition, content comprehension and code-related literacy skills.

Parkhill and Davey (2014) reviewed a series of studies conducted in New Zealand and Australia, as part of an ‘Audio Visual Achievement in Literacy, Language and Learning’ (AVAILLL) program. The structured program conducted in classrooms by teachers used a combination of popular films (with SLS) based on books and prescribed activities to improve reading and language ability among children in Years 5-10 (ages 10-15). It is not strictly limited to SLS exposure on media and assumes basic reading skills at Grade 4 level. AVAILLL’s impacts were researched on literacy and language gains among school children from low-income households, including from Maori and Pasifika backgrounds. The results from five studies show statistically significant gains for both comprehension and vocabulary,  particularly for diverse and low achieving students. According to Parkhill and Davey, same language subtitling (SLS) evokes unavoidable reading engagement automatic practice.

Longitudinal correlational studies in India have explored the impact of SLS exposure on the reading skills of weak readers by implementing it on mainstream TV. Large-scale pilots of SLS on existing film songs on TV in eight major languages have found first that similar to good readers, weak readers exposed to content with SLS also try to read along automatically, and second, that regular SLS exposure results in measurable improvement of reading skills (Kothari et al., 2004; Kothari et al., 2002). After three to five years of regular exposure to SLS, most weak readers advance to functional, and many to fluent, reading ability (Kothari and Bandyopadhyay, 2014). The earlier a child is exposed to SLS at home, concurrent with primary schooling when akshara (the basic orthographic unit in Indic languages) are introduced, the stronger the child’s reading skills become. While the reading skills of schoolchildren in grades one to three improve most effectively from SLS, adults benefit too, but less efficiently with age.

So let’s go back to that exam question – It’s proven that children will automatically read subtitles on TV. It’s proven that the overwhelming majority won’t turn them off (if they were on by default) and it’s proven that showing those subtitles will directly lead to an improvement in children’s literacy, language and reading skills. 

Further research (which you can read below in the more technical version of this tale) will show that this has an even greater impact on those struggling to read – which also correlates to lower income families.     

We’ll leave the final word on this to Lord Foster of Bath who puts it rather nicely:
“Once in a blue moon an idea comes along that just blows you away with its sheer simple brilliance. If ever there was a no-brainer, this is it”.

Please see:

Linebarger, D. L. (2001). Learning to read from television: The effects of using captions and narration. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 288–298.

Linebarger, D., Piotrowski, J. T., & Greenwood, C. R. (2010). On-screen print: The role of captions as a supplemental literacy tool. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(2), 148–167.

Parkhill, F. & Davey, R. (2014). ‘I used to read one page in two minutes and now I am reading ten’: Using popular film subtitles to enhance literacy outcomes. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years, 22(2), 28-33.

Kothari, Brij and Tathagata Bandyopadhyay (2014). Same Language Subtitling of Bollywood film songs on TV: Effects on literacy. Information Technologies & International Development, 10(4), 31–47.

Kothari, Brij, Avinash Pandey, and Amita Chudgar (2004). Reading Out of the “Idiot Box”: SameLanguage Subtitling on Television in India. Information Technologies and International Development, vol. 2(1): 23-44.

Kothari, Brij, Joe Takeda, Ashok Joshi, and Avinash Pandey (2002). Same Language Subtitling: A Butterfly for Literacy? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(1): 55-66.

Specific studies of the impact on vocabulary:

NEUMAN, S. B., & KOSKINEN, P. (1992). Captioned television as comprehensible input: Effects of incidental word learning from context for language minority students. Reading Research Quarterly, 27, 94-106. See abstract.

Koolstra, C.M., Beentjes, J.W.J. Children’s vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language through watching subtitled television programs at home. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47, 51–60 (1999). See abstract.

Bird, S. A., & Williams, J. N. (2002). The effect of bimodal input on implicit and explicit memory: An investigation into the benefits of within-language subtitling. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23(4), 509-533.  See abstract.

Specific studies of the impact on listening comprehension:

HUANG , H., & ESKEY, D. E. (1999). The effects of closed-captioned television on the listening comprehension of intermediate English as a second language (ESL) students. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 28, 75-96. See abstract.

Hayati, A., & Mohmedi, F. (2011). The effect of films with and without subtitles on listening comprehension of EFL learners. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42, 181-192. See abstract.

Amin Saed, Arash Yazdani, Mohsen Askary. Film Subtitles and Listening Comprehension Ability of Intermediate EFL Learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation, Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 29-3. See abstract.

Studies on language learning in general:

Anca Daniela Frumuselu, Sven De Maeyer, Vincent Donche, María del Mar Gutiérrez Colon Plana, Television series inside the EFL classroom: Bridging the gap between teaching and learning informal language through subtitles, Linguistics and Education,

Volume 32, Part B, 2015, Pages 107-117. See abstract.

Also when searching through journals you might want to use the following terms that are often used in this field: Same Language Subtitling (SLS) are “intralingual” or “bimodal” subtitles or “captions.” These are the search terms to use to find research studies. A massive bibliography on intralingual subtitles (what we call SLS) is here:


Dr Brij Kothari, Indian Institute of Management or Dr Deborah Nichols (nee Linebarger), Purdue University

The More Academic Version!

Same Language Subtitling (SLS) is the idea of subtitling (or captioning) audio-visual content in the ‘same’ language as the audio. Word for word, what you hear is what you read, in perfect timing.

There is a rich body of evidence supporting the impact of Same Language Subtitling (SLS) or captioning for language learning (e.g., Robert Vanderplank’s work). There is strong and growing evidence that SLS also improves reading skills. While either of these impacts would provide a strong rationale for SLS, the evidence for both, not to mention media access, makes SLS compelling. 

The most sustained push for SLS on TV for reading literacy has been in India, through research, sustained TV pilots and policy (Kothari and Bandyopadhyay, 2020; forthcoming Stanford Social Innovation Review; available on request). However, the positive impact of subtitle use on reading literacy has also been affirmed in several English and non-English speaking countries. Taken together, these studies consistently prove that exposure to subtitles which match the audio directly, contribute to reading development and language acquisition.

How do subtitles aid reading?

Subtitles cause automatic reading behaviour among children and adults.

A key finding of eye-tracking research on subtitling, which studies the automatic reading behaviour of children and adults, is that viewers who have some decoding ability – even partial letter-to-sound correspondence – just cannot ignore the subtitles and will exhibit automatic reading responses.

The Belgian professor Géry van Outryve d’Ydewalle is considered to be the pioneer in proving that subtitles will be read inescapably and automatically. His list of publications is voluminous: In one particular study confirming this, American subjects watched an American movie with English subtitles. Despite their lack of familiarity with subtitles, they spent considerable time in the subtitled area of the screen. As such, subtitle reading was found not to be due to habit formation from long-term experience. In the second part of the experiment, a movie in Dutch with Dutch subtitles was shown to Dutch-speaking subjects. They also looked extensively at the subtitles, suggesting that reading subtitles is preferred because of efficiency in following and understanding the movie. Evidence of such eye-tracking enables us to attribute possible learning outcomes to the subtitles.

The key to reading fluency is practice

An important learning from the neuro-cognitive sciences is that neurons that fire together, wire together. For proficient reading, they need to fire sufficiently and over a long enough period of time to achieve automaticity. As Frey and Fisher (2010) state, “When we experience something, neurons fire. Repeated firings lead to physical changes [in the brain] that, over time and with repetition, become more permanent.” They further point out that “The challenge, of course, with automaticity is to not allow repetition to turn into a rut.”

The key to reading practice is high-interest content

SLS rides content that is by definition interesting to the viewer. This is a critical point. MIT’s John Gabrieli, a leader in the field of cognitive neurosciences, explains how emotion and motivation “propel learning very powerfully.” SLS of audio-visual content that is interesting to children fires a steady stream of consistent grapheme-phoneme associations in the brain that already knows the language and letter-sound correspondence. In the case of popular songs, nursery rhymes and repeatedly watched cartoons there is the additional advantage of predictable text. The visual and auditory pathways involved in reading are strengthened gradually, subconsciously and incidentally, as a by-product of watching content that the child has an inherent motivation to watch.

Does SLS cause automatic reading engagement among good and struggling readers?

d’Ydewalle et al.’s (1991) eye-tracking research found that American subjects watching an English movie with SLS and Dutch subjects watching a Dutch movie with SLS, spent considerable time in the subtitle area. Reading SLS was inevitable and comparable for both groups, even though the Dutch subjects had much more experience with subtitles on TV. Reading SLS did not depend much on habit formation.

Several other studies have confirmed that reading along with SLS is inescapable, but the subjects have almost always been good readers. Hence, the critical question is, would struggling readers, especially those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, also try and engage automatically with SLS?

PlanetRead (2018) completed an eye-tracking study of government school children in Grades 2-5 in rural Rajasthan, India, by showing them animated stories with and without SLS. It is an understatement that the subjects were struggling readers from low-income families. Most children (94%) engaged with SLS, exhibiting an increasing number of eye-fixations on the subtitles, with grade. The story at a ‘low’ level of reading difficulty (81 simple words/min) invited the most reading engagement, followed by the ‘medium’ one (82 words/min), but SLS was mostly ignored in the ‘high’ difficulty story (111 words/min).

The primary conclusion is that almost all viewers who are beginning, struggling or good readers, will automatically engage with SLS. SLS just cannot be ignored.

Does SLS exposure lead to improved reading skills?

The idea of leveraging Closed-Captioning (CC) on TV to enhance the reading skills of struggling readers, is as old as CC itself (Koskinen et al., 1986) but longitudinal studies are few. Linebarger et al. (2010) commented on one such by Koskinen et al. (1997): “In a longitudinal study of continuous caption use in the home, children who viewed with captions scored significantly higher on normative tests of word identification and passage comprehension when compared with non-caption viewers.”

In Linebarger et al.’s (2010) study with struggling readers in Grades 2-3 from economically disadvantaged urban locations in the US, SLS exposure was limited to just six 30-minute episodes from children’s TV. Still, “The majority of outcomes… indicated that children who viewed with captions outperformed their counterparts who viewed without captions,” and the improvement was most pronounced among children at risk for poor reading outcomes.

Similarly, in New Zealand, Parkhill & Johnson (2009) found that in their six-week ‘AVAILLL’ programme for children aged 5-13 years, which uses popular, subtitled movies and accompanying novels to engage students in reading literacy, the greatest gains occurred for ‘low-progress’ readers. A positive impact was also observed for average and higher-level readers.

A number of longitudinal studies have come out of the SLS project in India. Kothari and Bandyopadhyay (2014) evaluated the impact of SLS after sustaining it for 5 years on a weekly hour-long programme of Hindi film songs telecast nationally in prime time. Among school children who could not read a single letter in Hindi at the baseline (2002), 70% in the high-SLS viewing group became functional readers by the endline (2007) as compared to 34% in the low-SLS group. In the 15+ age group, 14% in the high-SLS and 5% in the low-SLS group went from non-decoding to functional-reading. Adults gained too but children benefited substantially more in what can be described as a schooling + SLS effect.

Given the SLS project’s goal of persuading broadcast policy in India to require SLS on all the film songs shown on TV in India, in every language, a maximum SLS exposure of an hour a week, albeit for 5 years, was still too little. That was addressed in Maharashtra state where, for 2 years, SLS had a strong broadcast presence on around 20 Marathi films per week (only the songs were subtitled) on two of the most popular Marathi channels (Kothari and Bandyopadhyay, 2015). The Gujarat (control) and Maharashtra samples were comparable at the baseline (2013). By the endline (2015), in Maharashtra, 68% in Grade 3 could read at Grade 1 level or better as compared to 43% in Gujarat.

The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) independently found that over the same 2-year period, Maharashtra outperformed all states – 9% more children in Grade 5 were able to read a Grade 2 level text, as compared to no gain nationally. Among those who got regular SLS exposure, 30% more children in the early grades achieved basic reading ability. The impact of SLS on reading skills was considerably stronger for children in Grades 2-3. A separate study of SLS on TV in Gujarat state confirms its value on film songs for reading literacy (Kothari et al., 2004). What about SLS on children’s TV?

Universally, children love to watch cartoons. PlanetRead (2018a) found that struggling readers cannot but attend to SLS on animated stories. Does that contribute to reading skills? Linebarger et al. (2010) and Linebarger (2001) provide evidence that it does, while underscoring the importance of captions, “especially for children who might not have access to print.”

PlanetRead (2018b) conducted a year-long study in 10 primary schools in rural Delhi serving children in Grades 1-5 from low-income families. In 5 treatment schools, the teachers showed all the children in Grades 1-4, 30 minutes of animated stories in Hindi with SLS, three times a week. From a comparable starting point, the average reading score in the treatment schools was 70% higher than the control schools. The impact of the intervention on reading was most apparent in Grades 2-3, pointing again to the strong complementarity of SLS, during the early stages of reading acquisition.

The benefits of SLS or CC are not limited to reading literacy. For an overview of the range of benefits attributable to SLS – including reading, media access and language acquisition – see Gernsbacher (2015).

Does Same Language Subtitling improve reading skills in developed world markets as well as developing world ones?

Evidence of positive learning outcomes can be found in many studies covering various locations and socioeconomic circumstances:

United States

Linebarger, D., Piotrowski, J. T., & Greenwood, C. R. (2010). On-screen print: The role of captions as a supplemental literacy tool. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(2), 148–167.

“Children were randomly assigned to view videos with or without closed captions. Captions helped children recognise and read more words, identify the meaning of those words, generate inferences regarding programme content and transfer these skills to a normative code‐related skill task.”

Linebarger, D. L. (2001). Learning to read from television: The effects of using captions and narration. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 288–298.

“The present study indicated that beginning readers recognize more words when they view television that uses captions… the combination of captions and sound helped children identify the critical story elements in the video clips… In sum, television captions, by evoking efforts to read, appeared to help a child focus on central story elements.”

United Kingdom 

Eye-tracking research at the University at Nottingham confirms that subtitles will be read: BISSON, M., VAN HEUVEN, W., CONKLIN, K., & TUNNEY, R. (2014). Processing of native and foreign language subtitles in films: An eye-tracking study. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(2), 399-418.

Bisson is now at De Monfort University, Leicester: The others are at the University of Nottingham.

New Zealand and Australia

Parkhill, Faye and Davey, Ronnie. ‘I used to read one page in two minutes and now I am reading ten’: Using popular film subtitles to enhance literacy outcomes [online]. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 2014: 28-33.

“A series of New Zealand studies and one in Australia indicate that, by using subtitles of popular movies and associated literacy activities, both reading achievement and engagement are enhanced, particularly for diverse and low achieving students. Same language subtitling (SLS) appears to evoke unavoidable reading mileage where reading skills are practised subconsciously (Banks, 2012).”

Canada and France

Baltova, I., 1999. Multisensory Language Teaching in a Multidimensional Curriculum: The Use of Authentic Bimodal Video in Core French. Canadian Modern Language Review 56 (1), 32-48.

Nicolas Guichon, Sinead Mclornan. The effects of multimodality on L2 learners: Implications for CALL resource design. System, Elsevier, 2008, 36 (1), pp.85-93.

“The results indicate that comprehension improves when learners are exposed to a text in several modalities. In addition, they suggest that L2 subtitling [SLS] is more beneficial than L1 [translation subtitling] because it causes less lexical interference.”


Birulés-Muntané J., Soto-Faraco S (2016). Watching Subtitled Films Can Help Learning Foreign Languages. PLoS ONE 11(6)

“The results of the listening skills tests revealed that after watching the English subtitled version [of English content], participants improved these skills significantly more than after watching the Spanish subtitled or no-subtitles versions.”


One of the main factors behind the good PISA reading results in Finland is attributed by Pirjo Sinko, Finnish National Board of Education, to: “Foreign TV programmes not dubbed but have subtitles – improves children’s reading routine.”:

See Book Development of literacy in kindergarten and primary school

“Alongside the overall finding that children’s reading skills contribute to the frequency of their out-of-school reading, a bidirectional prospective impact was also found between reading and reading habits: the higher the amount of book reading, and the more likely children were to read TV subtitles, the better word chain reading they showed later on.”

This summary has been authored by Prof. Brij Kothari, Centre for Educational Innovation at the Indian Institute of Management (Ahmedabad), with input from Marion Macgillivray-Harrison from ITV, UK.


d’Ydewalle, G., Praet, C., Verfaillie, K., & Rensbergen, J. V. (1991). Watching Subtitled Television: Automatic Reading Behavior. Communication Research, 18(5), 650–666.

d’Ydewalle, G., & Van Rensbergen, J. (1989). Developmental studies of text-picture interactions in the perception of animated cartoons with text. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Advances in psychology, 58. Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 233-248). Oxford, England: North-Holland.

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. “Video Captions Benefit Everyone” Policy insights from the behavioral and brain sciences vol. 2,1 (2015): 195-202.

Koskinen, P.S., Bowen, C.T., Gambrell, L.B., Jensema, C.J. & Kane, K.W. (1997). Captioned television and literacy development: Effects of home viewing on learning disabled students. Paper presented at the Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.

Koskinen, P. S., Wilson, R. M., Gambrell, L. B., & Jensema, C. J. (1986). Using closed captioned television to enhance reading skills of learning disabled students. National Reading Conference Yearbook, 35, 61-65.

Kothari, B., & Bandyopadhyay, T. (2014). Same language subtitling of Bollywood songs on TV: Effects on literacy. Information Technologies & International Development, 10(4), 31–47.

Kothari, B. & Bandyopadhyay, T. (2015). An innovation to raise a nation’s reading skills: Scale up of Same Language Subtitling (SLS) on Zee in Maharashtra,

See also

Kothari, B., Pandey, A., & Chudgar, A. (2004). Reading out of the “idiot box”: Same-language subtitling on television in India. Information Technologies & International Development, 2(1), 23–44.

Linebarger, D., Piotrowski, J. T., & Greenwood, C. R. (2010). On-screen print: The role of captions as a supplemental literacy tool. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(2), 148-167.

Parkhill, F., & Johnson, J. (2009). An unexpected breakthrough for rapid reading improvement: AVAILLL uses movies so students read it, see it and get it. set: Research Information for Teachers, 1, 28−34.

PlanetRead (2018a). AniBooks: Scalable and likeable, but readable?

PlanetRead (2018b). AniBooks for early-grade reading.

 Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad by Professor Brij Kothari : “Based on an Indian Institute of Management study of 2,350 children, 34% became good readers with schooling alone. But when exposed to 30 minutes a week of subtitled film songs, that proportion more than doubled to 70%.”

Academic Papers

Price, Karen (1983). Closed-Captioned TV. An Untapped Resource. MATSOL Newsletter 12.2, 1 and 8.

Vanderplank, Robert (1988). The value of teletext sub-titles in language learning. ELT Journal 42.4, 272-281.

Markham, Paul L. (1989). The Effects of Captioned Television Videotapes on the Listening Comprehension of Beginning, Intermediate, and Advanced  Students. Educational Technology 29.10, 38-41.

Neuman, Susan B. & Koskinen, Patricia (1990). Using Captioned Television To Improve the Reading Proficiency of Language Minority Students. Falls Church, VA: The National Captioning Institute,Inc.

Vanderplank, Robert (1990). Paying Attention to the Words. Practical and Theoretical Problems in Watching Television Programmes with Uni-Lingual (Ceefax) Sub-Titles. System 18.2, 221-234.

Garza, Thomas J. (1991). Evaluating the Use of Captioned Video Materials in Advanced Foreign Language Learning. Foreign Language Annals 24.3, 239-258.

Danan, Martine. (1992). Reversed Subtitling and Dual Coding Theory. Language Learning 42.4, 497-527.

Neuman, Susan B. & Koskinen, Patricia (1992). Captioned television as comprehensible input. Effects of incidental word learning from context for language minority students. Reading Research Quarterly 27.1, 95-106. (See also Klingner 1993 and Neuman & Koskinen 1993!)

Seriwong, Somjai (1992). A Pilot Study on the Effects of Closed-Captioned Television on English as a Second Language Students’ Listening Comprehension. Ph.D. Thesis: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

Smith, Eric E. & Shen, Chung-wei (1992). The Effects of Knowledge of Results Feedback of Captioning on Listening Comprehension of English as a Second Language in Interactive Videodisc System. In: Simonson, Michael R. & Jurasek, Karen A. (eds.), 14th Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the 1992 Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University, 718-742.

Vanderplank, Robert (1992). Non-native speaker viewers’ use of teletext sub-titles in English. Some exploratory studies. In: Davies, Graham & Hussey, Michael (eds.), New Technology in Language Learning. Proceedings of the 1989 Man and the Media Symposium. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 89-102.

Markham, P. L. (1992/1993). Captioned Television Videotapes. Effects of Visual Support on Second Language Comprehension. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 21.3, 183-191.

Hirose, Keiko & Kamei, Setsuko (1993). Effects of English Captions in Relation to Learner Proficiency Level and Type of Information. Language Laboratory 30, 1-16.

Klingner, Janette Kettmann (1993). Commentary: Comprehensible comments on Neuman and Koskinen (1992). Reading Research Quarterly 28.4, 377-382.

Neuman, Susan B. & Koskinen, Patricia (1993). On forests and trees: A response to Klingner. Reading Research Quarterly 28.4, 383-385.

Borrás, Isabel & Lafayette, Robert C. (1994). Effects of Multimedia Courseware Subtitling on the Speaking Performance of College Students of French. Modern Language Journal 78.1, 61-75.

Kamei, Setsuko & Hirose, Keiko (1994). Multimedia Effects on L2 Comprehension in Relation to English Learner Proficiency Level. Language Laboratory 31, 1-17. (In Japanese with English abstract)

Ogasawara, Shinji (1994). Effectiveness of Using English Captioned Videos on Listening Comprehension Proficiency. Bulletin of the Faculty of Liberal Arts, Nagasaki University (Humanities) 35.1, 103-114.

Shang-Ikeda, Sophia (1994). Using Captions Increases Comprehension. JALT Journal 16.1, 83-89.

Weasenforth, Donald L. (1994). Closed Captioning. Students’ Responses. ERIC Document #ED370434 (

Chiquito, Ana Beatriz (1995). Metacognitive Learning Techniques in the User Interface. Advance Organizers and Captioning. Computers and the Humanities 28, 211-223.

Shizuka, Tetsuhito (1995). Whether, When, and How to Utilize the Printed Script of a Film. A Good Substitute for L2 Subtitles? IRLT Bulletin 9, 69-95.

Kikuchi, Toshikazu (1996). A Study of the Effects of an English-Captioned Movie on Rapid Reading and Listening Comprehension. Teaching English through Movies – ATEM Journal 2, 34-43. (In Japanese with English abstract)

Koskinen, Patricia S. & Knable, James E. & Markham, Paul L. & Jensema, Carl J. & Kane, Kathryn W. (1995/96). Captioned Television and the Vocabulary Acquisition of Adult Second Language Correctional Facility Residents. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 24.4, 359-373.

Obari, Hiroyuki (1996). A Cross-Sectional Study of Effectiveness on Listening Comprehension of the Use of Japanese Subtitled and English Captioned Videos. Teaching English through Movies – ATEM Journal 2, 11-22. (InJapanese with English abstract)

Zamoon, Sarah Rose (1996). Closed captioned television. A perceived means to self-help in second language learning. MA Thesis: Iowa State University, Ames.

Chung, Jing-Mei (1996/1997). The Effects of Using Advance Organizers and Captions to Introduce Video in the Foreign Language Classroom. TESL Canada Journal 14.1, 61-65.

Guillory, Helen Gant (1998). The Effects of Keyword Captions to Authentic French Video on Learner Comprehension. CALICO Journal 15.1-3, 89-108.

Kadoyama, Teruhiko (1998). Combined Use of English and Japanese Subtitles in Film Videos. An Attempt to Make Closed Captions More Accessible to Learners. ARELE – Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan 9, 53-63.

Kikuchi, Toshikazu (1998). A Preliminary Study of Key-Word English Captions. Teaching English through Movies – ATEM Journal 4, 3-13. (In Japanese with English abstract)

Yoshida, Haruyo & Uematsu, Shigeo & Yoshida, Shinsuke & Takeuchi, Osamu (1998). Modalities of Subtitling and Foreign Language Learning. Language Laboratory Association Journal of Kansai Chapter 7, 49-63.

Baltova, Iva (1999). The Effect of Subtitled and Staged Video Input on the Learning and Retention of Content and Vocabulary in a Second Language. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Toronto.

Chung, Jing-mei (1999). The Effects of Using Video Texts Supported with Advance Organizers and Captions on Chinese College Students’ Listening Comprehension. An Empirical Study. Foreign Language Annals 32.3, 295-308.

Kang, Hoo-Dong (1999). The effects of a caption-viewing strategy on students with limited listening proficiency. Foreign Languages Education 6, 297-323. (In Korean with English abstract)

Kikuchi, Toshikazu (1999). A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of Key-Word English Captions on Listening Comprehension. Memoirs of Numazu College of Technology 33, 135-146. (In Japanese with English abstract)

Li, Suk Fong (1999). The use of film subtitles in teaching English to the junior form students. MA Thesis: University of Hong Kong.

Markham, Paul (1999). Captioned Videotapes and Second-Language Listening Word Recognition. Foreign Language Annals 32.3, 321-328.

Baltova, Iva (1999/2000). Multisensory Language Teaching in a Multidimensional Curriculum. The Use of Authentic Bimodal Video in Core French. Canadian Modern Language Review 56.1, 31-48.

Huang, Hsin-Chuan & Eskey, David E. (1999/2000). The Effects of Closed-Captioned Television on the Listening Comprehension of Intermediate English As a Second Language (ESL) Students. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 28.1, 75-96.

Lee, Soo-Kil (2000). How to Improve English Ability through Closed Captioning. English Language Teaching (Pan-Korea English Teachers Association) 12.2, 47-64.

Liversidge, Gordon (2000). Multimedia Texts. A Validation Survey of Learners’ Perspectives of Captioning. Otsuma Women’s University Annual Report, Humanities and Social Sciences 32, 79-93.

Liversidge, Gordon Barry (2000). The Role of Closed Captioning in Second Language Acquisition. Ed.D. Thesis: Temple University Japan.

Shea, Peter (2000). Leveling the Playing Field. A Study of Captioned Interactive Video for Second Language Learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research 22.3, 243-263.

Suh, Chun-Soo & Kang, Hoo-Dong (2000). BCR Effect and Caption Presentation Rate to Students with Limited Listening Proficiency. English Language Teaching (Pan-Korea English Teachers Association) 12.2, 1-25.

Yoshino, Shiho & Kano, Noriko (2000). The Effects of the L1 and L2 Caption Presentation Timing on Listening Comprehension. In: Bourdeau, Jacqueline & Heller, Rachelle (eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2000. Charlottesville, VA: AACE, 1209-1214.

Yoshino, Shiho & Kano, Noriko & Akahori, Kanji (2000). The Effects of English and Japanese Captions on the Listening Comprehension of Japanese EFL Students. Language Laboratory 37, 111-130.

Markham, Paul (2000/2001). The Influence of Culture-Specific Background Knowledge and Captions on Second Language Comprehension. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 29.4, 331-343.

Markham, Paul L. & Peter, Lizette A. & McCarthy, Teresa J. (2001). The Effects of Native Language vs. Target Language Captions on Foreign Language Students’ DVD Video Comprehension. Foreign Language Annals 34.5, 439-445.

Taura, Hideyuki & Taura, Amanda (2001). Modality Effects on L2 Listening Comprehension Skills through DVD Movies. Journal of Fukui Medical University 2.1/2, 65-70. (In Japanese with English abstract)

Kikuchi, Toshikazu (2002). The Efficacy of Keyword Captions on Listening Comprehension. Teaching English through Movies – ATEM Journal 7, 3-15. (In Japanese with English abstract)

Kikuchi, Toshikazu (2002). An Experiment on the Long-Term Effects of Keyword Captions. Memoirs of Numazu College of Technology 36, 171-180.

Pujolà, Joan-Tomàs (2002). CALLing for help: researching language learning strategies using help facilities in a web-based multimedia program. ReCALL 14.2, 235-262.

Taura, Hideyuki (2002). Effective Use of DVD Movies in the Classroom in Terms of Modality Effects on L2 Listening Skill Improvement. In: Swanson, Malcolm & McMurray, David (eds.), On PAC3 at JALT2001. A Language Odyssey. Tokyo: JALT, 315-327.

Taura, Hideyuki (2002). L1/L2 Modality Effects on Listening Comprehension – Through a Term Long Usage of DVD Movies. Media and Education 8, 103-113. (In Japanese with English abstract)

Markham, Paul & Peter, Lizette (2002/2003). The Influence of English Language and Spanish Language Captions on Foreign Language Listening/Reading Comprehension. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 31.3, 331-341.

Acosta Matos, Héctor A. (2003). The Effects of Closed Captions upon the Listening Comprehension of Students Learning English As a Second Language in an Intermediate School in Puerto Rico. MA Thesis: University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez.

Chang, Suhsun (2003). The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on the Second Language Listening Comprehension Through the Use of Subtitles. Journal of National Taipei University of Technology 36.1, 151-182.

Hwang, Yan-Ling (2003). The Effect of the Use of Videos Captioning on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) on College Students’ Language Learning in Taiwan. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Mississippi, Oxford.

Kikuchi, Toshikazu (2003). The Efficacy of Keyword Captions on the Improvement of EFL Students’ Listening Comprehension. Memoirs of Numazu College of Technology 37, 193-204.

Wei, Jung-Kuei (2003). The Effect of Meaningful-Making Technology on Learning a Foreign Language. Integrating Video Clips with Two Captioning Modes on a Simulated German-Learning Website. Ed.D. Thesis: Idaho State University, Pocatello.

Çilek, Selahattin (2004). An Applied Study of Close-Captioned Video on Advanced Students of English As Listening Comprehension Material. Master’s Thesis: Selçuk Üniversitesi, Konya.

Elvin, Chris (2004). My Students’ DVD Audio and Subtitle Preferences for Aural English Study. An Action Research Project. Explorations in Teacher Education 12.4, 3-17.

Herbert, Marianne (2004). The Use of DVD in Foreign Language Learning. Strategies used by Learners for Meaning Focused and Form Focused Tasks. BA Thesis: Trinity College Dublin.

Hernandez, Sylvia Sepulveda (2004). The Effects of Video and Captioned Text and the Influence of Verbal and Spatial Abilities on Second Language Listening Comprehension in a Multimedia Learning Environment. Ph.D. Thesis: New York University.

Luo, Jia-Jen (2004). Using DVD Films to Enhance College Frechmen’s English Listening Comprehension and Motivation. Master’s Thesis: National Tsinghua University.

Park, Myongsu (2004). Captioned Cinderella. English Teaching (Korea Association of Teachers of English) 59.4, 325-348. 

Park, Myongsu (2004). The Effects of Partial Captions on Korean EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Texas at Austin.

Stewart, Melissa A. & Pertusa, Inmaculada (2004). Gains to Language Learners from Viewing Target Language Closed-Captioned Films. Foreign Language Annals 37.3, 438-447. (See also Markham 2005 and Stewart & Pertusa 2005!)

Tsai, Pei-hua (2004). An Analysis of the Effects of Multimedia on English Listening Comprehension of Junior High School Students. Master’s Thesis: National Changhua Normal University.

Uematsu, Shigeo (2004/2005). The Effectiveness of English Captions on English Language Learning Using DVD Movies. Journal of Multimedia Aided Education Research 1.1, 107-114. (In Japanese with English abstract)

Markham, Paul (2005). More on Caption Use. A Response to Stewart and Pertusa. Foreign Language Annals 38.2, 283.

Rozendaal, Christopher Mark (2005). Fluency through Friends. Authentic video, subtitle modification, and oral fluency. MA Thesis: Iowa State University, Ames.

Stewart, Melissa A. & Pertusa, Inmaculada (2005). Responding to Markham’s Comments. Foreign Language Annals 38.2, 284.

Taylor, Gregory (2005). Perceived Processing Strategies of Students Watching Captioned Video. Foreign Language Annals 38.3, 422-427.

Wang, Hui (2005). The Effects of Captions on Chinese EFL Students’ Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Education 4, 47-52. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Yang, Ming-ying (2005). Effects of Captions on Listening Comprehension and Strategy Use by Taiwanese EFL Freshmen. A Case Study. Master’s Thesis: National Changhua University of Education.

Barbosa, Edilene Rodrigues & Pereira, Germana da Cruz (2006). La utilización de películas subtituladas en el desarrollo de la proficiencia oral de alumnos de Lengua Española. In: Actas del Primer Congreso Virtual E/LE. La enseñanza del español en el siglo XXI. Málaga: Ediciones EdiEle.

Caimi, Annamaria (2006). Audiovisual Translation and Language Learning. The Promotion of Intralingual Subtitles. Journal of Specialised Translation 6, 85-98.

Chang, Suhsun (2006). The Interaction Between Schemata and Subtitles. Journal of National Taipei University of Technology 39.1, 209-227.

Cheng, Yong Rui (2006). A Comparative Study of Different Subtitling Formats in Two English News Broadcasts in Taiwan. Master’s Thesis: National Tsinghua University.

Gomes, Francisco Wellington Borges (2006). O Uso de Filmes Legendados como Ferramenta para o Desenvolvimento da Proficiência Oral de Aprendizes de Língua Inglesa. Dissertação de Mestrado: Universidade Estadual do Ceará.

Clausson, David (2007). Subtitles – To be or not to be. A Study of English Listening Comprehension among Swedish Students. BA Thesis: Halmstad University.

Cunha, Tiago Martins da (2007). O Uso de Filmes Legendados e do Ensino Comunicativo de Línguas no Desenvolvimento da Proficiência Oral em Nível Básico de Língua Estrangeira. Dissertação de Mestrado: Universidade Estadual do Ceará.

Grgurovic, Maja & Hegelheimer, Volker (2007). Help Options and Multimedia Listening. Students’ Use of Subtitles and the Transcript. Language Learning & Technology 11.1, 45-66.

Leiva de Izquierdo, Bertha (2007). Los videos subtitulados en inglés: un recurso subutilizado en la lectura del inglés como lengua extranjera (EFL). Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada 45, 81-102.

Tomita, Kaoru (2007). Does Presenting Captions Result in Better Listening Comprehension? JACET Zenkoku Taikai Yoko 46, 36-37.

Wang, Hui (2007). The Effects of Captions on Chinese EFL Students’ Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. CELEA Journal 30.4, 9-16.

Abdellah, Antar S. (2008). Can intralingual subtitling enhance English majors’ listening comprehension of literary texts? Journal of Qena Faculty of Education 11.1.

Araújo, Vera Lúcia Santiago (2008). The educational use of subtitled films in EFL teaching. In: Díaz Cintas, Jorge (ed.), The Didactics of Audiovisual Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 227-238.

Bianchi, Francesca & Ciabattoni, Tiziana (2008). Captions and Subtitles in EFL Learning. An investigative study in a comprehensive computer environment. In: Baldry, Anthony & Pavesi, Maria & Torsello, Carol Taylor & Taylor, Christopher (eds.), From Didactas to Ecolingua. An Ongoing Research Project on Translation and Corpus Linguistics. Trieste: Edizioni Università di Trieste, 69-90.

Bravo, Maria da Conceição Condinho (2008). Putting the Reader in the Picture. Screen Translation and Foreign-Language Learning. Ph.D. Thesis: Universitat Rovira i Virgili.

Chai, Judy & Erlam, Rosemary (2008). The Effect and the Influence of the Use of Video and Captions on Second Language Learning. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics 14.2, 25-44.

Guichon, Nicolas & McLornan, Sinead (2008). The effects of multimodality on L2 learners. Implications for CALL resource design. System 36.1, 85-93.

Özgen, Mehmet (2008). The Use of Authentic Captioned Video As Listening Comprehension Material in English Language Teaching. MA Thesis: Selçuk Universitesi, Konya.

Oliveira Filho, Luiz de (2008). Utilização da legendagem intralingüística no desenvolvimento da proficiência oral em língua francesa. Dissertação de Mestrado: Universidade Estadual do Ceará.

Shalmani, Hamed Babaie (2008). On the Effects of Help Options in MCALL Programs on the Listening Comprehension of EFL Learners. Journal of Teaching English Language and Literature Society of Iran 2.6, 27-47.

Specker, Elizabeth A. (2008). L1/L2 Eye Movement Reading of Closed Captioning. A Multimodal Analysis of Multimodal Use. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Arizona.

Uehara, Keiko & Minegishi, Kazuya & Oguma, Kazuhiro & Yamazaki, Kaoru & Akaiwa, Toshinori (2008). Using English Films with English Subtitles to Develop English Proficiency of College Students Traning to Be English Teachers. Journal of Teaching Methodology, Gunma University 7, 79-94.

Wu, Taiwei (2008). Advance Organziers and Subtitles on College Students’ Listening Performance. Master’s Thesis: National Pingtung University of Education.

Gibbs, Charles (2009). Learner-controlled captioning: a new frontier? Exploring the impact of learner control on the development of listening skills in a multimedia environment. MA Thesis: Concordia University, Montreal.

Haghverdi, Hamid Reza & Vaezi, Mohammed Nasser (n.d.) [2009]. The Impact of English and Persian Movie Subtitle on the Listening Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners.

Harvey, Myrcea Santiago dos Santos (2009). O uso didático do gênero filme legendado na aprendizagem de leitura de textos do gênero jornalístico/noticioso em inglês. Um estudo com alunos de uma escola pública de Fortaleza. Dissertação de Mestrado: Universidade Estadual do Ceará.

Mitterer, Holger & McQueen, James M. (2009). Foreign Subtitles Help but Native-Language Subtitles Harm Foreign Speech Perception. PLoS ONE 4.11, e7785.

Qiu, Xue-lin (2009). Movie Captions and Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Journal of Shunde Polytechnic 7.3, 63-65. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Tsai, Chia-jung (n.d.) [2009]. Insight into Learners’ Perspectives on Watching Movies with L1 vs. L2 Subtitles.

Tsai, Chia-jung & Huang, Shenghui Cindy (n.d.) [2009]. Target Language Subtitles for Comprehensible Film Language Input. 

Yuksel, Dogan & Tanriverdi, Belgin (2009). Effects of Watching Captioned Movie Clip on Vocabulary Development of EFL Learners. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology 8.2, 48-54.

Zarei, Abbas Ali (2009). The Effect of Bimodal, Standard, and Reversed Subtitling on L2 Vocabulary Recognition and Recall. Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji 49, 65-84.

Alameen, Ghinwa (2010). The Role of Video Subtitling in Listening Comprehension. In: Levis, John M. & LeVelle, Kimberly (eds.), Technology for Oral Communication. Ames: Iowa State University, 28-39.

Alkhatnai, Mubarak (2010). The Effect of TV Captions on the Comprehension of Non-Native Saudi Learners of English. In: ICT for Language Learning Conference 2010. Proceedings; reprinted 2012 in: Sino-US English Teaching 9.10, 1573-1579.

Bravo, Conceição (2010). Text on screen and text on air. A useful tool for foreign language teachers and learners. In: Díaz Cintas, Jorge & Matamala, Anna & Neves, Josélia (eds.), New Insights into Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility. Media for All 2. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 269-283.

Harji, Madhubala Bava & Woods, Peter Charles & Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal (2010). The Effect Of Viewing Subtitled Videos On Vocabulary Learning. Journal of College Teaching & Learning 7.9, 37-42.

Hayati, Majid A. & Mohmedi, Firooz (2010). The Effect of Films With and Without Subtitles on Listening Comprehension of EFL Intermediate Students. International Journal of Instructional Media 37.3, 301-313.

Hsu, Ching-Kun & Chang, Chih-Kai (2010). Effects of Automatic Hidden Caption Classification on a Content-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning System for Foreign Language Listening. In: Wong, S. L. & Kong, S. C. & Yu, F. Y. (eds.), Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education. Putrajaya: APSCE, 236-243.

Hwang, Yanling & Huang, Pei-Wen (2010). The Effects of Video Captioning on L2 Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Journal of National Huwei University of Science and Technology 29.2, 95-107.

Kent, Heidi B. (2010). The Efficacy of Enhanced Subtitles plus Explicit Grammatical Instruction on the Acquisition of L2 Grammatical Structures. In: Cooper, Angela et al. (eds.), Simon Fraser University Working Papers. Vol. 3. Proceedings of the 26th Northwest Linguistics Conference. Burnaby: Simon Fraser University.

Markham, Paul L. & Willis, Sheree & Hsu, Connie (2010). Chinese Captions and Foreign Language (Mandarin) Comprehension. Issues in Information Systems 11.2, 219-224.

Selim, Aysha Abdel-Moneim (2010). The Effect of Using Same Language Subtitling (SLS) in Content Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition in Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Master’s Thesis: American University in Cairo.

Sydorenko, Tetyana (2010). Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning & Technology 14.2, 50-73.

Tsai, Feng-Hung (Will) (2010). Integrating Feature Films with Subtitles to Enhance the Listening Comprehension of Students Attending College in Taiwan. Ed.D. Thesis: Alliant International University.

Winke, Paula & Gass, Susan & Sydorenko, Tetyana (2010). The Effects of Captioning Videos Used for Foreign Language Listening Activities. Language Learning & Technology 14.1, 66-87.

Wong, Po Shan (2010). The effectiveness of learning vocabulary through English news subtitles. A case study with Hong Kong ESL learners. MA Thesis: University of Hong Kong.

Yang, Jie Chi & Chang, Chia Ling & Lin, Yi Lung & Shih, Mei Jen Audrey (2010). A Study of the POS Keyword Caption Effect on Listening Comprehension. In: Wong, S. L. & Kong, S. C. & Yu, F. Y. (eds.), Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education. Putrajaya: APSCE, 708-712.

Chen, Hao-Jan Howard (2011). Developing and evaluating SynctoLearn, a fully automatic video and transcript synchronization tool for EFL learners. Computer Assisted Language Learning 24.2, 117-130.

Ghorbani, Mohammad Reza (2011). Watching Cartoons With Subtitles Improves Children’s Foreign Language Acquisition. US-China Foreign Language 9.4, 241-246.

Hayati, Abdolmajid & Mohmedi, Firooz (2011). The effect of films with and without subtitles on listening comprehension of EFL learners. British Journal of Educational Technology 42.1, 181-192.

Hwang, Yanling & Huang, Peiwen (2011). Using Subtitles to Enliven Reading. English Language and Literature Studies 1.1, 2-6.

Latifi, Mehdi & Mobalegh, Ali & Mohammadi, Elham (2011). Movie Subtitles and the Improvement of Listening Comprehension Ability. Does it help? Journal of Language Teaching and Learning 1.2, 18-29.

Lavaur, Jean-Marc & Bairstow, Dominique (2011). Languages on the screen. Is film comprehension related to the viewers’ fluency level and to the language in the subtitles? International Journal of Psychology 46.6, 455-462.

Nagira, Yuri (2011). Vocabulary Learning through Captions. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research 26, 95-99.

Roohani, Ali & Rabiei, Somayeh (2011). Effect of Watching Movies with Bimodal, Standard and No-Subtitles on Incidental Learning of Formal and Informal Vocabulary. Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics 2.2, 100-118.

Rooney, Kevin M. (2011). Impact of Keyword Caption Ratio, Language Proficiency, and Attitude on Foreign Language Listening Comprehension. Ph.D. Thesis: Capella University.

Tsai, Shiao-Ling (2011). The Effects of Viewing Subtitles of English Cartoon Videos on Taiwanese Fifth Graders’ English Listening Comprehension. Master’s Thesis: Chaoyang University of Technology.

Zarei, Abbas Ali & Rashvand, Zohreh (2011). The Effect of Interlingual and Intralingual, Verbatim and Nonverbatim Subtitles on L2 Vocabulary Comprehension and Production. Journal of Language Teaching and Research 2.3, 618-625.

Zarei, Abbasali & Saddeghi, Mahsa (2011). The effects of synchronous and asynchronous interlingual and intralingual transcript presentation on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production. Teaching English Language (Journal of Teaching English Language and Literature Society of Iran) 5.1, 101-123.

Ahangari, Saeideh & Amini, Shima Mohammad (2012). The Impact of Films with and without Subtitles on Iranian EFL Learners’ Mastery of Lexical Phrases. American Journal of Scientific Research 69, 68-80.

Alipour, Mohammad & Gorjian, Bahman & Kouravand, Lida Gholampour (2012). The effects of pedagogical and authentic films on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. The role of subtitles. Advances in Asian Social Science3.4, 734-738.

Bairstow, Dominique (2012). Rôle des sous-titres dans la compréhension et la mémorisation de films. Thèse de doctorat: Université Paul Valéry – Montpellier III.

Bairstow, Dominique & Lavaur, Jean-Marc (2012). Audiovisual Information Processing by Monolinguals and Bilinguals. Effects of Intralingual and Interlingual Subtitles. In: Remael, Aline & Orero, Pilar & Carroll, Mary (eds.), Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility at the Crossroads. Media for All 3. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 273-293.

Chen, Mei-Ling (2012). Effects of the Order of Reading Text or Viewing a Film and L1/L2 Captions on Reading Comprehension. Perceptual & Motor Skills 115.1, 18-26.

Chiu, Ti-Kai & Hsieh, Tung-Cheng & Lee, Ming-Che & Chang, Jia-Wei & Wang, Tzone-I (2012). Using Controllable Partial Subtitles and Interactive Features in Educational Videos. International Journal of Information and Education Technology 2.4, 364-366.

Etemadi, Aida (2012). Effects of Bimodal Subtitling of English Movies on Content Comprehension and Vocabulary Recognition. International Journal of English Linguistics 2.1, 239-248.

Ghasemboland, Farimah & Nafissi, Zohreh (2012). The Effects of Using English Captions on Iranian EFL Students’ Listening Comprehension. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 64, 105-112.

Ho, Chao-Hsiang (2012). Taiwan EFL Learners’ Attitudes toward Films with English Subtitle in Language Learning. A Case Study of University Freshmen. Master’s Thesis: Tamkang University, New Taipei City.

Hu, Yongjin (2012). An Empirical Research Testing the Effects of Multimodality on English Listening Teaching. In: IEEE (ed.), 2012 First National Conference for Engineering Sciences (FNCES 2012). New York: IEEE, 1449-1451.

Karakas, Ali & Sariçoban, Arif (2012). The Impact of Watching Subtitled Animated Cartoons on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of ELT Students. Teaching English with Technology 12.4, 3-15. (See also Bogdanov 2013!)

Leveridge, Aubrey Neil & Yang, Jie Chi (2012). Affective States Arising from the Removal of Captioning Support in EFL Multimedia Environments. In: Biswas, Gautam & Wong, Lung-Hsiang & Hirashima, Tsukasa & Chen, Wenli (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computers in Education ICCE 2012. Singapore: APSCE/National Institute of Education, 628-632.

Li, Chen-Hong (2012). Are They Listening Better? Supporting EFL College Students’ DVD Video Comprehension With Advance Organizers In A Multimedia English Course. Journal of College Teaching & Learning 9.4, 277-288.

Li, Mingyue (2012). L1, L2 and L1+L2 subtitles in videos in L2 classroom settings. An investigation of teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the use of L1, L2 and L1+L2 subtitles in the L2 classroom. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Liang, Eleen (2012). Using English Animated Cartoons on English Learning. Master’s Thesis: Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan City.

Pak, Hubert H. (2012). The Effect of Films with and without Subtitles on Vocabulary Acquisition Scores of Foreign Language Learners. Using a Korean Sit-com, Unhindered High-KickSTEM Journal 13.3, 17-31.

Peng, Li-Wei (2012). The Impacts of DVD Films on EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. MA Thesis: Ming Chuan University, Taipei.

Raine, Paul (2012). Incidental learning of vocabulary through subtitled authentic videos. MA Thesis: University of Birmingham.

Seo, Jiyoung & Lee, Donghan (2012). The role of language play in awareness-raising tasks. Using captions from Desperate HousewivesSTEM Journal 13.1, 57-80. (In Korean with English abstract)

Taghavi, Mehdi & Sabet, Masoud Khalili & Zafarghandi, Amir Mahdavi (2012). The Effect of Captioned Brief News on Iranian Secondary Students’ Vocabulary Learning. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 3.11.

Wang, Yu-Chia (2012). Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama. From the Learner’s Perspective. English Language Teaching 5.8, 217-225.

Yang, Wen-Ting (2012). Application of the Task-Based Approach in English Listening Class by Watching Films for EFL Elementary School Learners. Master’s Thesis: Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan City.

Yekta, Razieh Rabbani & Ketabi, Saeed & Tavakoli, Mansoor (2012). Change of the state representation of words in viewing instantaneous speech texts. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 22.1, 88-104.

Yoon, Sangdon & Ahn, Deokgyu (2012). The effect of film with or without subtitles on learners’ vocabulary enhancement in Korea. Using subtitles from AladdinThe Little Mermaid and The Lion KingSTEM Journal 13.3, 73-87. (In Korean with English abstract)

Ahn, Miri (2013). The Impact of Subtitled Online Video Clips on Incidental Vocabulary Learning. STEM Journal 14.2, 135-151.

Aldera, Abdullah S. & Mohsen, Mohammed Ali (2013). Annotations in captioned animation. Effects on vocabulary learning and listening skills. Computers & Education 68, 60-75.

Araújo, Felipe Roberto & Barbosa, Edilene Rodrigues (2013). O uso de legendas como suporte para a compreensão leitora no ensino e aprendizagem de Espanhol Como Língua Estrangeira. In: Carvalho, Tatiana Lourenço de & Barbosa, Edilene Rodrigues & Irineu, Lucineudo Machado (eds.), Espanhol na universidade. Pesquisas em língua e em literatura. Mossoró: Edições UERN, 111-124.

Aurstad, Lisa Maria Grønn (2013). The Role of Subtitles in Second Language Acquisition. An experimental study in the context of the Norwegian school system. Master’s Thesis: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

Basaran, Hülya Felek & Köse, Gül Durmusoglu (2013). The effects of captioning on EFL learners’ listening comprehension. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 70, 702-708.

Basaran, Suleyman & Dilber, Eyup (2013). Effects of Captioned TV Shows on Language Learner Motivation and Perception. Respectus Philologicus 23, 83-96.

Bogdanov, Stan (2013). One-Time Treatment for Incidental Vocabulary Learning. Call for Discontinuation. A commentary on Ali Karakas and Arif Sariçoban’s ‘The impact of watching subtitled animated cartoons on incidental vocabulary learning of ELT students’. Teaching English with Technology 13.2, 75-82.

Dong, Jian-qiao & Zhou, Ya-jing & Liu, Gui-ru (2013). Perceptual Load and Selective Attention in Multimedia English Videos Watching. The Effect of Keyword Captions on Video Comprehension. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Education 153, 57-64. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Dooley, Morgan William (2013). How Movie Subtitles Influence EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Journal of Applied English 6, 51-66.

Ferdiansyah, Veri & Nakagawa, Seiichi (2013). Effect of Captioning Lecture Videos For Learning in Foreign Language. IPSJ SIG Technical Report 2013-SLP-97 No. 13.

He, Yanhong (Minnie) (2013). The Effect of Subtitled Movies on Listening Comprehension of Chinese College Students of Low Proficiency. MSc Thesis: University of Wisconsin-Platteville.

Hsu, Ching-Kun & Hwang, Gwo-Jen & Chang, Yu-Tzu & Chang, Chih-Kai (2013). Effects of Video Caption Modes on English Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition Using Handheld Devices. Educational Technology & Society 16.1, 403-414.

Hu, Jian & Huang, Lin (2013). Subtitles and Chinese EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications 7.4, 359-368.

Hu, Yongjin & Zhang, Delu (2013). An experimental study on the function of multimodality in teaching listening to English majors. Foreign Language World 5, 20-25 and 44. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Kovacs, Geza (2013). Smart Subtitles for Language Learning. In: Mackay, Wendy E. (ed.), CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM, 2719-2724.

Kruger, Jan-Louis (2013). Subtitles in the classroom: balancing the benefits of dual coding with the cost of increased cognitive load. Journal for Language Teaching – Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 47.1, 29-53.

Kruger, Jan-Louis & Hefer, Esté & Matthew, Gordon (2013). Measuring the Impact of Subtitles on Cognitive Load. Eye Tracking and Dynamic Audiovisual Texts. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Eye Tracking South Africa. New York: ACM, 62-66.

Kvitnes, Ingrid Elisabeth Nufsfjord (2013). Subtitles in the Second Language Classroom. An experimental study with Norwegian learners of English. Master’s Thesis: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

Lee, Jawon & Lee, Dong-Han (2013). A Study of Why Movies Are Suitable Study Materials for Noticing Activities. Based on The MiddleSTEM Journal 14.2, 91-106.

Li, Chen-Hong (2013). They Made it! Enhancing University-Level L2 Learners’ Listening Comprehension of Authentic Multimedia Materials with Advance Organizers. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher 22.2, 193-200.

Li, Tianyi & Xin, Tongchuan (2013). The Influence of Movies with Different Subtitles on Receptive and Productive Vocabulary. Journal of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies 4, 105-108. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Matielo, Rafael & Collet, Thaís & D’Ely, Raquel Carolina Souza Ferraz (2013). The effects of interlingual and intralingual subtitles on vocabulary learning by Brazilian EFL learners. An exploratory study. Revista Intercâmbio27, 83-99.

Militello, Estefania (2013). On Vocabulary Acquisition through Authentic Intralingual Subtitled Videos. Breaking the Mould? 

Mohammed, Rania (2013). The effectiveness of using subtitled video to teach grammar. MA Thesis: Iowa State University, Ames.

Montero Perez, Maribel & Van Den Noortgate, Wim & Desmet, Piet (2013). Captioned video for L2 listening and vocabulary learning. A meta-analysis. System 41.3, 720-739.

Paul, Carmen (2013). Putting the Reader in the Picture. Subtitling and Foreign Language Learning. Diplomarbeit: Karl-Franzens-Universität, Graz.

Prasetyo, Dodi Erwin & Fachri, Drs. (2013). The Effectiveness of Using English Sub-Title Video As Alternative Media in Learning Reading Narrative for Ten Graders of SMAN 1 Kutorejo. RETAIN 1.3.

Raine, Paul (2013). Incidental Increase in Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Through the Viewing of Subtitled, Authentic Videos. In: Sonda, Nozomu & Krause, Aleda (eds.), JALT2012. Making a Difference. Tokyo: JALT, 492-505.

Rodgers, Michael Patrick Hindley (2013). English language learning through viewing television. An investigation of comprehension, incidental vocabulary acquisition, lexical coverage, attitudes, and captions. Ph.D. Thesis: Victoria University of Wellington.

Sharif, Masoud Raee & Ebrahimian, Maryam (2013). A Comparative Study of ‘Subtitled’ vs. ‘Auditory’ Documentaries Comprehension among Persian Speakers of English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature 2.2, 185-192.

Soleimani, Hassan & Vafaee, Sedigheh (2013). The Effect of Synchronous and Asynchronous Script Presentation on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. International Journal of Basic Sciences and Applied Research2.6, 616-622.

Vaezi, Mohammed Nasser & Sarkeshikian, Seyyed Amir Hossein & Shah-Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza (2013). The Impact of Pre-Modified Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Iranian EFL Journal 9.3, 222-232.

van Sluijs, Anne (2013). Soundtrack versus Subtitles. Use of Input Channel in Intermediate and Advanced L2 Learners of Spanish. MA Thesis: University of Groningen.

Winke, Paula & Gass, Susan & Sydorenko, Tetyana (2013). Factors Influencing the Use of Captions by Foreign Language Learners. An Eye-Tracking Study. Modern Language Journal 97.1, 254-275.

Yang, Ya-Fei & Chao, Ching-Ju & Lin, Yu-Ling & Chang, Chih-Kai (2013). Usability Testing of Japanese Captions Segmentation System to Scaffold Beginners to Comprehend Japanese Videos. International Journal of Cyber Society and Education 6.1, 1-14.

Yang, Pinghua (2013). The Effects of Different Subtitling Modes on Chinese EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. MA Thesis: China University of Geosciences, Beijing.

Zarei, Abbas Ali & Gilanian, Mahboubeh (2013). The effect of multimedia modes on L2 vocabulary learning. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences 2, Special Issue 2, 1011-1020.

Zarei, Abbas Ali & Rahmany, Ramin & Gilanian, Mahboubeh (2013). Multimedia Input Modality. Affecting L2 Vocabulary Learning. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Abdollapur, Zeinab (2014). Listening Skill Development through Integrating Subtitles with Schemata Activation. International Journal of Language Learning And Applied Linguistics World 6.1, 253-267.

Abdolmanafi Rokni, Seyed Jalal & Ataee, Azam Jannati (2014). The Effect of Movie Subtitles on EFL Learners’ Oral Performance. International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities 1.5, 201-215.

Abdolmanafi Rokni, Seyed Jalal & Ataee, Azam Jannati (2014). Movies in EFL Classrooms: With Or Without Subtitles. The Dawn Journal 3.1, 715-726.

Al-Motairy, Elham M. & Shoaib, Amel (2014). The Impact of Film on Teaching Vocabulary in Saudi EFL Classrooms. In: Dept. of Academic Cooperation, Ministry of Labour (Saudi Arabia): Statistical Yearbook 1435-1434.

Aloqaili, Ghadah Saleh (2014). Learning Vocabulary from Subtitled Videos. An investigation into the effectiveness of using subtitled videos for intentional vocabulary learning in Saudi Arabia with an exploration of learners’ perspective. MA Thesis: University of Southampton.

Bagheri, Somayeh & Ghoorchaei, Behrooz (2014). The Effect of Watching Subtitled and Non-Subtitled English Videos on Iranian EFL Learners’ Idiom Comprehension. In: Turkish Journal of Scientific Research 1.2, 33-39.

Barekat, Behzad & Farrokhian, Parisa (2014). The Effect of Documentary Subtitles on Listening Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners at Intermediate Level. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods 4.3, 54-63.

BavaHarji, Madhubala & Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal & Letchumanan, Krishnaveni (2014). Captioned Instructional Video. Effects on Content Comprehension,Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency. English Language Teaching 7.2, 1-16.

Bisson, Marie-Josée & van Heuven, Walter J. B. & Conklin, Kathy & Tunney, Richard J. (2014). Processing of native and foreign language subtitles in films. An eye tracking study. Applied Psycholinguistics 35.2, 399-418. (First published online in 2012)

Bos, Monique (2014). The Efficacy of Subtitles. Three Different Subtitling Conditions to Enhance FL Vocabulary Knowledge. MA Thesis: University of Groningen.

Budiana Putra, I Putu (2014). Learning Vocabulary Using English Movie with Subtitles in SMAK Santo Yoseph. Humanis 22.1.

Gorjian, Bahman (2014). The Effect of Movie Subtitling on Incidental Vocabulary Learning among EFL Learners. International Journal of Asian Social Science 4.9, 1013-1026.

Hassanabadi, Firoozeh Mohammadi & Heidari, Mahsa (2014). The Effect of Intersemiotic Translation on Vocabulary Learning. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 98, 1165-1173.

Hoogendyk, Fika Widya Christy & Arifin, Zainal & Novita, Dewi (2014). Increasing Students’ Vocabulary by Using Bimodal Subtitling in Short Movie. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran (Universitas Tanjungpura) 3.11, 1-14.

Hsu, Ching-Kun & Hwang, Gwo-Jen & Chang, Chih-Kai (2014). An Automatic Caption Filtering and Partial Hiding Approach to Improving the English Listening Comprehension of EFL Students. Educational Technology & Society 17. 2, 270-283.

Hsu, Wenhua (2014). The effects of audiovisual support on EFL learners’ productive vocabulary. ReCALL 26.1, 62-79.

Hu, Yu-Ting (2014). Effects of Video Caption and Subtitle on EFL Listening Comprehension of Junior High School Students. Master’s Thesis: National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei.

Khabibulloh, Ahmad (2014). The Effectiveness of English Movies’ Subtitle to Improve Students’ Writing Skill at SMP Wachid Hasyim 7 Surabaya. Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis: Sunan Ampel State Islamic University, Surabaya.

Kovacs, Geza & Miller, Robert C. (2014). Smart Subtitles for Vocabulary Learning. In: Jones, Matt & Palanque, Philippe & Schmidt, Albrecht & Grossman, Tovi (eds.), CHI ’14. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM, 853-862.

Kruger, Jan-Louis & Hefer, Esté & Matthew, Gordon (2014). Attention distribution and cognitive load in a subtitled academic lecture. L1 vs. L2. Journal of Eye Movement Research 7.5:4, 1-15.

Kruger, Jan-Louis & Steyn, Faans (2014). Subtitles and Eye Tracking: Reading and Performance. Reading Research Quarterly 49.1, 105-120.

Lee, Karam (Gloria) (2014). A Study of the Effect of English Closed Captions on the Spelling Skill of Korean Elementary School Students. Issues in EFL 10.1, 115.

Lees, David (2014). To What Extent Can ‘Karaoke’-style Subtitles on Digital Video Help Learners of English as a Foreign Language? Kwansei Gakuin University Center for Language Education Research Annual Report 17, 57-73.

Li, C.-H. (2014). An alternative to language learner dependence on L2 caption-reading input for comprehension of sitcoms in a multimedia learning environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 30.1, 17-29.

Lin, Jian-ping (2014). A Study of the Subtitle Effects of Videos on the EFL Listening Comprehension of Elementary School Students. MA Thesis: National Changhua University of Education.

Lin, Wen-hsiu (2014). The Effect of Repeated Viewings of Bilingual-Subtitled Videos on College Students’ Listening Comprehension. MA Thesis: National Chung Cheng University, Minxiong.

Mayer, Richard E. & Lee, Hyunjeong & Peebles, Alanna (2014). Multimedia Learning in a Second Language. A Cognitive Load Perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology 28.5, 653-660.

Mirzaei, Maryam Sadat & Akita, Yuya & Kawahara, Tatsuya (2014). Partial and Synchronized Caption Generation to Develop Second Language Listening Skill. In: Wu, Ying-Tien et al. (eds.), Workshop Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computers in Education ICCE 2014. Nara: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, 13-23.

Mirzaei, Maryam Sadat & Akita, Yuya & Kawahara, Tatsuya (2014). Partial and synchronized captioning. A new tool for second language listening development. In: Jager, Sake et al. (eds.), CALL Design. Principles and Practice. Proceedings of the 2014 EUROCALL Conference, Groningen, The Netherlands. Dublin:, 230-236.

Mohajer, Shima Shirinbeik & Pourgharib, Behzad (2014). The Effect of Captioned Videos on Advanced EFL Learners’ Proficiency in Iran. International Journal of Basic Sciences and Applied Research 3.12, 951-957.

Montero Perez, Maribel & Peters, Elke & Clarebout, Geraldine & Desmet, Piet (2014). Effects of Captioning on Video Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning. Language Learning & Technology 18.1, 118-141.

Montero Perez, Maribel & Peters, Elke & Desmet, Piet (2014). Is less more? Effectiveness and perceived usefulness of keyword and full captioned video for L2 listening comprehension. ReCALL 26.1, 21-43.

Moon, Eun-Joo & Yun, Jiyeo (2014). Learner Perceptions on the Effects of Different Types of Subtitles and Explanation Methods in the EFL Classroom Using Films. STEM Journal 15.3, 21-38.

Mousavi, Fatemeh & Gholami, Javad (2014). Effects of Watching Flash Stories with or without Subtitle and Reading Subtitles on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 98, 1273-1281.

Muzammil, Lasim (2014). Analysis of Multimodality on L2 Learners As Reflected in Their CAF of the Spoken Performance. In: The 61st TEFLIN International Conference, UNS Solo 2014. Proceedings. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University, 960-963.

Muzammil, Lasim (2014). Improving EFL Learners Language Written Production Using Subtitled Videos. Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa dan Sastra 1.2, 154-165.

Nigoevic, Magdalena & Pejic, Koraljka & Pejic, Trisnja (2014). Using Film Subtitles in FLT in Croatia. In: Akbarov, Azamat (ed.), Linguistics, Culture and Identity in Foreign Language Education. Sarajevo: International Burch University, 1151-1156.

Nishiyama, China (2014). Effects of Korean Film Captions on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition by Korean Language Learners. Master’s Thesis: Ewha Womans University, Seoul. (In Korean with English abstract)

Rolph, Deborah (2014). We didn’t get nuffin’: subtitled film as a tool in the teaching of markers of orality. Ph.D. Thesis: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Rooney, Kevin (2014). The Impact of Keyword Caption Ratio on Foreign Language Listening Comprehension. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching 5.2, 11-28.

Shamsaddini, Mohammad Reza & Ghanbari, Batoul & Nematizadeh, Safieh (2014). The Effect of Watching Movies with and without Subtitles on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods 4.2, 153-162.

Silhánková, Lenka (2014). Lerneffekt und -motivation anhand ‘Extra auf Deutsch’, eine Untersuchung. In: Silhánková, Lenka: Intralinguale Untertitelung als Mittel der Spracherlernung. Diploma Thesis: Masaryk University, Brno, 56-62.

Su, Shu-Chin & Liang, Eleen (2014). Elementary Students’ Motivation and Attitudes toward English Animated Cartoons at a Cram School. International Journal of Arts and Commerce 3.5, 15-36.

Wang, Yangting (2014). The Effects of L1/L2 Subtitled American TV Series on Chinese EFL Students’ Listening Comprehension. MA Thesis: Michigan State University.

Yang, Hui-Yu (2014). The Effects of Advance Organizers and Subtitles on EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension Skills. CALICO Journal 31.3, 345-373.

Yang, Jie Chi & Chang, Peichin (2014). Captions and reduced forms instruction. The impact on EFL students’ listening comprehension. ReCALL 26.1, 44-61.

Yang, Yan (2014). The Effects of Captions on Learners’ Listening Performance and Vocabulary Acquisition. Journal of Jixi University 14.3, 79-82. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Abobaker, Reima M. O. (2015). The Effect of Written Scaffolds on Different Proficiency Levels of Second Language (L2) Listening Comprehension. Ph.D. Thesis: Washington State University, Pullman.

Ávila Molero, María Inmaculada (2015). Mejora de la comprensión auditiva del inglés como segunda lengua mediante material audiovisual subtitulado. Tesis Doctoral: Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla.

Baharani, Bahareh & Ghafournia, Narjes (2015). The Impact of Multimodal Texts on Reading Achievement. A Study of Iranian Secondary School Learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature4.4, 161-170.

Behroozizad, Sorayya & Majidi, Subadeh (2015). The Effect of Different Modes of English Captioning on EFL Learners’ General Listening Comprehension. Full Text vs. Keyword Captions. Advances in Language and Literary Studies 6.4, 115-121.

Bianchi, Francesca (2015). Subtitling Science. An efficient task to learn content and language. Lingue e Linguaggi 15, 7-25.

Charles, Tendai & Trenkic, Danijela (2015). Speech Segmentation in a Second Language. The Role of Bi-modal Input. In: Gambier, Yves & Caimi, Annamaria & Mariotti, Cristina (eds.), Subtitles and Language Learning. Principles, strategies and practical experiences. Bern: Peter Lang, 173-198.

Ching, Gregory & Tchong, Wei-Ling (2015). Pedagogical implications of using English TV series as supplement for EFL learners. Asian EFL Journal 81, 45-61.

Dong, Jiangqiao & Zhou, Yajing & Liu, Guiru (2015). The Effect of Caption Modes on EFL Students’ Video Comprehension. Journal of Language Teaching and Research 6.2, 397-404.

Frumuselu, Anca Daniela (2015). Subtitled Television Series inside the EFL Classroom: Long-Term Effects upon Colloquial Language Learning and Oral Production. Doctoral Thesis: Universitat Rovira i Virgili/Universiteit Antwerpen.

Frumuselu, Anca Daniela & De Maeyer, Sven & Donche, Vincent & del Mar Gutiérrez Colon Plana, María (2015). Television series inside the EFL classroom: Bridging the gap between teaching and learning informal language through subtitles. Linguistics and Education 32, 107-117.

Ghoneam, Noha Sobhy (2015). The Effect of Subtitling on the Enhancement of EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Arab World English Journal 6.4, 275-290.

Gowhary, Habib & Pourhalashi, Zeinab & Jamalinesari, Ali & Azizifar, Akbar (2015). Investigating the Effect of Video Captioning on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 192, 205-212.

Hicking, Robert (2015). Subtitles in authentic video listening. An exploration of the benefits of captions in relation to sensory preference types. MA Thesis: University College London.

Hsieh, Chu-Hua (2015). The Study of DVD Subtitle on EFL Students’ English Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition. International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies 3.2, 131-138.

Hsu, Ching-Kun (2015). Learning motivation and adaptive video caption filtering for EFL learners using handheld devices. ReCALL 27.1, 84-103.

Ishimaki, Kensaku & Saunders, Thomas C. (2015). Devising an Effective Methodology for Measuring the Benefit of L2 Subtitled Extensive Watching on Learner Motivation, Autonomy and Skill Development. The Center for ELF Journal 1.1, 61-81.

Jahanyfard, Asieh (2015). The Effects of Captioned Video on Learning English Idiomatic Expressions among ESL Learners in the Advance Level. MA Thesis: University of Toledo.

Lautenbacher, Olli Philippe (2015). Reading Cohesive Structures in Subtitled Films. A Pilot Study. In: Perego, Elisa & Bruti, Silvia (eds.), Subtitling Today. Shapes and Their Meanings. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 33-56.

Mansoori, Maysam (2015). Subtitle’s Effect on the Listening Comprehension of the Viewers & Viewers’ Attitude towards Subtitles. International Journal of Review in Life Sciences 5.1, 1124-1128.

Mariotti, Cristina (2015). A Survey on Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Subtitles as a Means to Promote Foreign Language Learning. In: Gambier, Yves & Caimi, Annamaria & Mariotti, Cristina (eds.), Subtitles and Language Learning. Principles, strategies and practical experiences. Bern: Peter Lang, 83-105.

Matamala, Anna & Oliver, Andreu & Álvarez, Aitor & Azpeitia, Andoni (2015). The Reception of Intralingual and Interlingual Automatic Subtitling. An Exploratory Study within the HBB4ALL Project. In: Esteves-Ferreira, João & Macan, Juliet & Mitkov, Ruslan & Stefanov, Olaf-Michael (eds.), Proceedings of Translating and the Computer 37 Conference (TC37). Geneva: Editions Tradulex, 12-17.

Montero Perez, Maribel & Peters, Elke & Desmet, Piet (2015). Enhancing Vocabulary Learning through Captioned Video. An Eye-Tracking Study. Modern Language Journal 99.2, 308-328.

Mulyadi, Dodi & Mutmainnah, Yulia (2015). Using English Movie Akeelah and the Bee with English Subtitle to Improve Students’ Listening Ability. Lensa 5.1, 16-24.

Naghizadeh, Mohammad & Darabi, Tayebeh (2015). The Impact of Bimodal, Persian and No-subtitle Movies on Iranian EFL Learners’ L2 Vocabulary Learning. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research 2.2, 66-79.

Ntowa, Tchuingoua Rachelle Nely & Ayonghe, Lum Suzanne (2015). Audiovisual translation as a tool for teaching English Language to French-speaking students in Cameroon. Journal of African Studies and Development 7.8, 200-206.

Pak, Hubert H. (2015). Cultural and Situational Influences on Learner/Teacher Beliefs. Effects of Subtitles Using CSI:MiamiSTEM Journal 16.4, 123-140.

Palaska, Athanasia (2015). The efficiency of subtitles in Second Language Acquisition. MA Thesis: University of Groningen.

Pasban, Mohsen Ali & Forghani, Mahshid & Nouri, Ahmad (2015). The Effects of Using English Captions on Iranian Intermediate EFL Students’ Learning of Phrasal Verbs. Journal of Language Teaching and Research 6.2, 373-382.

Rahayu, Kristin (2015). Enhancing EFL College Students Listening Comprehension by Captioning. ETERNAL English Teaching Journal (Universitas PGRI Semarang) 6.1, 58-63.

Rooney, Kevin (2015). Partial-Text Captioned Video: Its Efficacy and the Partial Text Selection Process. European Journal of Applied Linguistics and TEFL 4.1, 143-159.

Ruan, Xiaoyan (2015). The Effect of Caption Modes on EFL Students’ Video Comprehension. Journal of Language Teaching and Research 6.2, 397-404.

Sabouri, Hossein & Zohrabi, Mohammad & Osbouei, Zeynab Karimi (2015). The Impact of Watching English Subtitled Movies in Vocabulary Learning in Different Genders of Iranian EFL Learners. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature 3.2, 110-125.

Shabani, Karim & Zanussi, Marjan Pasha (2015). The Impact of Watching Captioned TV Series on Vocabulary Development of EFL Students. Journal for the Study of English Linguistics 3.1, 118-129.

Soltani, Somayeh & Soori, Afshin (2015). The Difference between the Effectiveness of Authentic and Pedagogical Films in Learning Vocabulary among Iranian EFL Students. Advances in Language and Literary Studies 6.1, 199-202.

Su, Shu-Chin & Liang, Eleen (2015). Using Subtitled Animated Cartoons and Textbook-based CDs to Test Elementary Students’ English Listening and Reading Comprehension in a Cram School. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature 4.1, 106-114.

Turel, Vehbi (2015). Intelligent Design of Captions in Interactive Multimedia Listening Environments. In: Vehbi, Turel (ed.): Intelligent Design of Interactive Multimedia Listening Software. Hershey: IGI Global, 47-74.

Vahdany, Fereidoon & Azaraki, Asadollah Maleki (2015). The effect of watching captioned movies on Iranian learners’ vocabulary learning at pre-intermediate level. Elixir International Journal – Elixir Educational Technology79, 30619-30633.

Vulchanova, Mila & Aurstad, Lisa M. G. & Kvitnes, Ingrid E. N. & Eshuis, Hendrik (2015). As naturalistic as it gets: subtitles in the English classroom in Norway. Frontiers in Psychology 5, Article 1510.

Zareian, Gholamreza & Adel, Seyyed Mohammad Reza & Alizadeh, Fahimeh (2015). The Effect of Multimodal Presentation on EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension and Self-Efficacy. Academic Research International6.1, 263-271.

Alamri, Samia Faheed (2016). The Effects of English, Arabic, and No Subtitles on Arabic ESL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. MA Thesis: California State University, Fresno.

Al-Motairy, Elham M. (2016). The Impact of Film on Teaching Vocabulary in Saudi EFL Classrooms. Canadian International Journal of Social Science and Education 8 (July), 149-168.

Ayand, Fatemeh Khosh & Shafiee, Sajad (2016). Effects of English and Persian Subtitles on Oral Fluency and Accuracy of Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature5.3, 133-144.

Bahrani, Taher & Tondar, Sima (2016). The Effectiveness of Exposure to Documentary Films with and without Subtitle As Authentic Language Input on Listening Comprehension of Intermediate Level Language Learners. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods 6.6, 86-94.

Bensalem, Elias (2016). Effects of Captioning Video Clips on Vocabulary Learning Among ESL Learners. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies 3.2, 381-395.

Bensalem, Elias (2016). The Impact of Keyword and Full Video Captioning on Listening Comprehension. Journal of Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes 4.3, 453-463, and Global Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 6.3, 111-119.

Birulés-Muntané, J. & Soto-Faraco, S. (2016). Watching Subtitled Films Can Help Learning Foreign Languages. PLoS ONE 11.6, e0158409.

Boeckmann, Klaus-Börge (2016). Lesen(d) lernen mit Untertiteln. ÖDaF-Mitteilungen 32.2, 6-16.

Carstens, Miranda (2016). The Effect of Using DVD Subtitles in English Second-Language Vocabulary Recognition and Recall Development.  MA Thesis: University of South Africa, Pretoria.

Cha, Kyung-Whan & Lee, You-Jin (2016). An Effect of English Subtitles on Listening Comprehension. Content Comprehension and Vocabulary Recognition. English Language Teaching (Pan-Korea English Teachers Association) 28.1, 21-43.

Cingilhoglu, Serap S. & Cingilhoglu, Salih & Cansiz, Gökhan (2016). Teaching TOEFL Listening through Films and Simplified Listening Passages. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 2.1, 265-270.

Danan, Martine (2016). Enhancing Listening with Captions and Transcripts: Exploring Learner Differences. Applied Language Learning 26.2, 1-24.

Dizon, Gilbert (2016). Online Video Streaming in the L2 Classroom. Japanese Students’ Opinions Towards Netflix and Subtitles. Osaka JALT Journal 3, 70-87.

Ebrahimi, Yasser & Bazaee, Parisa (2016). The Effect of Watching English Movies with Standard Subtitles on EFL Learners’ Content and Vocabulary Comprehension. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research 3.5, 284-295.

Eye, Henrik (2016). The Impact of Subtitles in Second Language Acquisition. An experimental study on Norwegian upper secondary students. Master’s Thesis: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

Grum, Urška (2016). Metaanalyse zum Einfluss intralingualer Filmuntertitel auf das fremdsprachliche Hör-Sehverstehen. In: Böttger, Heiner & Sambanis, Michaela (eds.), Focus on Evidence. Fremdsprachendidaktik trifft Neurowissenschaften. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto, 211-226.

Hosogoshi, Kyoko (2016). Effects of captions and subtitles on the listening process. Insights from EFL learners’ listening strategies. JALT CALL Journal 12.3, 153-178.

Iwasaki, Hirosada (2016). The Effects of Viewing a TED Talk on Incidental Vocabulary Learning. In: SAI 2016. STEM-ATEM-ICEM Joint International Conference. Proceedings. Seoul: Society for Teaching English through Media, 25-29.

Li, Mingyue (2016). An Investigation into the Differential Effects of Subtitles (First Language, Second Language, and Bilingual) on Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Edinburgh.

Lin, John J. H. & Lee, Yuan-Husan & Wang, Dai-Yi & Lin, Sunny S. J. (2016). Reading Subtitles and Taking Enotes While Learning Scientific Materials in a Multimedia Environment. Cognitive Load Perspectives on EFL Students. Educational Technology & Society 19.4, 47-58.

Lin, Lu-Fang (2016). The Impact of Video-based Materials on Chinese-Speaking Learners’ English Text ComprehensionEnglish Language Teaching 9.10, 1-13.

Liu, Rui & Zhang, De-lu (2016). A Study on Instruction Effects of Different Formats of Captions Instruction in English Major’s Audio-Visual Classroom. Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing (Social Science Edition) 32.5, 23-28. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Mardani, Mahdi & Najmabadi, Abedin (2016). The Effect of Movies with Different Types of Subtitles on Incidental English Vocabulary Learning of Iranian High School EFL Learners. Iranian Journal of Research in English Language Teaching (= Research in English Language Pedagogy) 4.1, 52-63.

Matielo, Rafael (2016). Intralingual Subtitles, Interlingual Subtitles, and L2 Vocabulary Learning. An Exploratory Study with Brazilian EFL Students. Tese de Doutoramento: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis.

Mohsen, Mohammed Ali (2016). Effects of help options in a multimedia listening environment on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Computer Assisted Language Learning 29.7, 1220-1237.

Pelani, Gustian (2016). The Effect of Subtitled Animated Cartoon Videos on Students’ Reading Comprehension. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literature 2.2, 20-29.

Peters, Elke & Heynen, Eva & Puimège, Eva (2016). Learning vocabulary through audiovisual input. The differential effect of L1 subtitles and captions. System 63, 134-148.

Prasetyo, Bayu (2016). The Influence of Bilingual Subtitles on Students’ Vocabulary Mastery. Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis: Semarang State University.

Rostam Shirazi, Roya & Hesabi, Akbar & Simin, Shahla (2016). Effects of pedagogical movie English subtitles on EFL learners’ vocabulary improvement. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning 5.2, 47-56.

Rowell, Jordan (2016). Integrating Francophone Cinema into the High School French Class. In: McCoy, Leah P. (ed.): Studies in Teaching. 2016 Research Digest. Winston-Salem: Wake Forest University, 31-36.

Saed, Amin & Yazdani, Arash & Askary, Mohsen (2016). Film Subtitles and Listening Comprehension Ability of Intermediate EFL Learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation 2.3, 29-32.

Saeedi, Zari & Biri, Aso (2016). The Application of Technology in Teaching Grammar to EFL Learners. The Role of Animated Sitcoms. Teaching English with Technology 16.2, 18-39.

Sirmandi, Effat Heidari & Sardareh, Sedigheh Abbasnasab (2016). The Effect of BBC World Clips With and Without Subtitles on Intermediate EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Development. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences 4.4, 61-69).

Sirmandi, Effat Heidari & Sardareh, Sedigheh Abbasnasab (2016). Improving Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Knowledge through Watching Video Clips with English Subtitles. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research 3.6, 175-187.

Utomo, Dias Tiara Putri (2016). The Use of Intralingual Subtitle in Animation Video and Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy to Improve the 7th Graders’ Vocabulary Mastery at SMPN 13 Malang. SKRIPSI Jurusan Sastra Inggris – Fakultas Sastra UM 2016.

Vanderplank, Robert (2016). Captioned Media in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing as Tools for Language Learning. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

York, Erlend Urkedal (2016). Effects from Using Subtitled Audiovisual Material in Second Language Acquisition. An experimental study in a second language learning classroom in Norway. Master’s Thesis: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

Abobaker, Reima (2017). Improving ELL’s Listening Competence Through Written Scaffolds. TESOL Journal 8.4, 831-849.

Allen, Michelle (2017). Using Captioned Video to Teach Listening Comprehension in a Spanish Classroom. In: McCoy, Leah P. (ed.): Studies in Teaching. 2017 Research Digest. Winston-Salem: Wake Forest University, 1-6.

Arramany, Muhammad Iqbal (2017). Developing Vocabulary Classes Based on Explicit-Implicit Vocabulary Learning to Promote Vocabulary Mastery of Students of MTs Darul A’mal. Master’s Thesis: Lampung University, Bandar Lampung.

Arramany, Muhammad Iqbal & Sutarsyah, Cucu & Nurweni, Ari (2017). The Effectiveness of Explicit-Implicit Vocabulary Learning Using Subtitled-Video on Vocabulary Mastery of Students of MTs. Darul A’mal. U-JET. Unila Journal of English Teaching 6.9.

Ashtiani, Farshid Tayari (2017). The Effect of Typographical Features of Subtitles on Nonnative English Viewers’ Retention and Recall of Lyrics in English Music Videos. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature 6.7, 122-129.

Aydin Yildiz, Tugba (2017). The Effect of Videos with Subtitles on Vocabulary Learning of EFL Learners. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 7.9, 125-130.

Balseca Acosta, Adriana Cecilia (2017). Aplicación Tecnológica Closed Caption para la Habilidad de Escuchar de los estudiantes de Nivel II Elementary paralelo ‘D’ pertenecientes al Centro de Idiomas de la Universidad Autónoma de los Andes UNIANDES. Master’s Thesis: Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito.

Barnau, Anna & Dzuganová, Bozena (2017). The Effects of Captioning Videos on Learning English for Special Purposes. In: Gómez Chova, L. & López Martínez, A. & Candel Torres, I. (eds.), ICERI2017 Proceedings. 10th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Valencia: IATED, 2779-2786.

Charles, Tendai Juma (2017). The role of captioned video in developing speech segmentation for learners of English as a second language. Ph.D. Thesis: University of York.

Culbertson, Gabriel & Shen, Solace & Andersen, Erik & Jung, Malte (2017). Have your Cake and Eat it Too. Foreign Language Learning with a Crowdsourced Video Captioning System. In: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing. New York: ACM, 286-296.

Ekinci, Mithat (2017). The Effects of Subtitled Animation Movies on the Listening Skills of EFL Students. MA Thesis: Çukurova University, Adana.

Faqe, Chiaye Khorsheed (2017). The Effectiveness of English Movie Subtitles in Vocabulary Learning among Iraqi Kurdistan EFL Learners. Soran University EFL Learners As an Example. International Journal of Current Advanced Research 6.3, 2590-2594.

Feng, Yanxue (2017). How Does Mode of Input Affect Incidental Vocabulary Learning. MA Thesis: University of Western Ontario, London.

García, Boni (2017). Bilingual Subtitles for Second-Language Acquisition and Application to Engineering Education as Learning Pills. Computer Applications in Engineering Education 25.3, 468-479.

Iklimaini, Inarotul (2017). The Effect of Intralingual Subtitled and Non-Subtitled Documentary Videos on Vocabulary Retention for Eleventh Grade Students. RETAIN 5.3, 337-345.

Inceçay, Volkan & Koçoglu, Zeynep (2017). Investigating the effects of multimedia input modality on L2 listening skills of Turkish EFL learners. Education and Information Technologies 22.3, 901-916.

Kam, Emily Fen (2017). Captions for All? Validating the Effect of Captions on L2 Learners with Different Online Processing Profiles. Master’s Thesis: National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei City.

Kruger, Jan-Louis & Doherty, Stephen & Soto-Sanfiel, María-T. (2017). Original Language Subtitles: Their Effects on the Native and Foreign Viewer. Comunicar 50, 23-32.

Lazareva, Elena & Loerts, Hanneke (2017). Double subtitles as an effective tool for vocabulary learning. Koninskie Studia Jezykowe – Konin Language Studies 5.1, 61-92.

Lee, Eun-Hye & Park, Mae-Ran (2017). The Effects of Subtitled Movies on Learners’ Affective Domain and Productive Vocabulary Knowledge. STEM Journal 18.4, 37-56.

Lee, Je-Young (2017). Effects of Using Subtitles of Video Contents on L2 Learners’ Listening and Vocabulary Development. A Meta-Analysis. Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics 33.2, 137-158. (In Korean with English abstract)

Liao, Sixin (2017). The impact of bilingual subtitles on attention distribution and cognitive load. An eye tracking study. Master’s Thesis: Macquarie University, Sydney.

Ma, Ying (2017). The Effects of Dynamic English Keyword Captions Instruction on Productive Vocabulary Knowledge Acquisition. Journal of Xinyang College of Agriculture and Forestry 27.1, 139-142. (In Chinese with English abstract)

Mahdi, Hassan Saleh (2017). The effect of key-words video captions on vocabulary learning through mobile-assisted language learning. Australian Educational Computing 32.1.

Mahdi, Hassan Saleh (2017). The Use of Keyword Video Captioning on Vocabulary Learning through Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. International Journal of English Linguistics 7.4, 1-7.

Matielo, Rafael & Oliveira, Roberta Pires de & Baretta, Luciane (2017). Intralingual subtitles, interlingual subtitles, and video comprehension. Insights from an exploratory study. Letrônica 10.2, 758-774.

Mirzaei, Maryam Sadat (2017). Partial and Synchronized Caption to Foster Second Language Listening Based on Automatic Speech Recognition Clues. Doctoral Thesis: Kyoto University 2017.

Mirzaei, Maryam Sadat & Meshgi, Kourosh & Akita, Yuya & Kawahara, Tatsuya (2017). Partial and synchronized captioning. A new tool to assist learners in developing second language listening skill. ReCALL 29.2, 178-199.

Muñoz, Carmen (2017). The role of age and proficiency in subtitle reading. An eye-tracking study. System 67, 77-86.

Nasab, Mahdiyeh Seyed Beheshti & Motlagh, Seyyed Fariborz Pishdadi (2017). Vocabulary Learning Promotion through English Subtitled Cartoons. Communication and Linguistics Studies 3.1-1, 1-7.

Plotnikova, Anastasiia (2017). Intentional and Incidental Learning of English Grammar through Captioned Video Exposure. Master’s Thesis: Universitat de Barcelona.

Redzioch-Korkuz, Anna (2017). Gaining more benefits from a film lesson: integrated subtitles. In: Deckert, Mikolaj (ed.): Audiovisual Translation – Research and Use. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 273-288.

Ridarma, Muhammad Aulia (2017). Mastering Vocabulary and Pronunciation through Viewing English Subtitled Videos. Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis: Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh.

Rodgers, Michael P. H. & Webb, Stuart (2017). The Effects of Captions on EFL Learners’ Comprehension of English-Language Television Programs. CALICO Journal 34.1, 20-38.

Rodzuan, Nurul Amalina Binti Mohd (2017). The Effects of Movie Subtitles on Phrasal Verb Recognition. Master’s Thesis: University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

Ryu, Do Hyung (2017). The Effect of an Output Activity Using English Subtitles in a Korean TV Drama. STEM Journal 18.4, 85-105.

Sanchez, Daniel (2017). The Use of Audiovisual Aids (Videos) for Spanish Vocabulary Acquisition of A1 Level Thai Learners. Vacana – Journal of Language and Linguistics 5.1, 1-17.

Sevik, Mustafa (2017). Does Bimodal Subtitling Effect Listening Comprehension in EFL Contexts? In: Köksal, Dinçay (ed.), Researching ELT. Classroom Methodology and Beyond. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 55-64.

Shahsavandi, Gholam Hossein (2017). Effects of Closed-Caption Programs on EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning. Journal of Studies in Learning and Teaching English 6.1, 47-70.

Soler Pardo, Betlem (2017). La traducción audiovisual en la enseñanza de una LE. La subtitulación como herramienta metodológica para la adquisición de léxico. Tejuelo 26, 163-192.

Suparmi & Cahyono, Bambang Yudi & Latief, M. Adnan (2017). Subtitled Videos, Un-Subtitled Videos, and Indonesian EFL Students’ Writing Ability. Studies in English Language Teaching 5.3, 466-480.

van der Zee, Tim & Admiraal, Wilfried & Paas, Fred & Saab, Nadira & Giesbers, Bas (2017). Effects of Subtitles, Complexity, and Language Proficiency on Learning From Online Education Videos. Journal of Media Psychology 29.1, 18-30.

Angerbauer, Katrin (2018). Exploring Simplified Subtitles to Support Spoken Language Understanding. Masterarbeit: Universität Stuttgart.

Ashcroft, Robert John & Garner, Joseph & Hadingham, Oliver (2018). Incidental Vocabulary Learning Through Watching Movies. Australian Journal of Applied Linguistics 1.3, 135-147.

Barnau, Anna (2018). Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Captioning Videos. In: Válková, Silvie (ed.), Trends in Language Education at Tertiary Level in Language Centres at Czech and Slovak Universities III. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Foreign Language Education. Palacký University Olomouc, 7-16.

Barnau, Anna & Dzuganova, Bozena & Malinovska, Nora (2018). Video Watching with/without Captions. A Quantitative Study. In: Barnau, Anna et al., Effective English Language Teaching Through Videos. Theory and Praxis. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac, 39-46.

Bensalem, Elias (2018). The Efficacy of Captions on Students’ Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Journal of Teaching and Teacher Education 6.1, 1-11.

Chen, Yi-Ru & Liu, Yeu-Ting & Todd, Andrew Graeme (2018). Transient but Effective? Captioning and Adolescent EFL Learners’ Spoken Vocabulary Acquisition. English Teaching & Learning 42.1, 25-56.

Chiang, Chia-Ling (2018). Evaluating the Effects of Subtitles and Captions on EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension of Online Videos. Master’s Thesis: National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei City.

Choi, Yunju & Lee, Kang-Young (2018). Effects of ESL Learners’ Use of Subtitles on News Watching. No Subtitle, during Watching, and after Watching News. English Language & Literature Teaching 24.1, 13-34.

Diehl, Michael A. & Pak, Hubert H. (2018). Prior Learning Experience. The Effects on Listening Comprehension and Learning Motivation of EFL Learners. In: TEEM 2018. STEM-KASEE-Seoul SETA 2018 Joint International Conference. Proceedings. Seoul: Society for Teaching English through Media, 237-238.

Frumuselu, Anca Daniela (2018). The implications of Cognitive Load Theory and exposure to subtitles in English Foreign Language (EFL). Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts 4.1, 55-76. Reprinted 2020 in: Incalcaterra McLoughlin, Laura et al. (eds.), Audiovisual Translation in Applied Linguistics. Educational Perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 58-78.

Galimberti, Valeria & Miralpeix, Imma (2018). Multimodal Input for Italian Beginner Learners of English. A Study on Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning from Undubbed TV Series. In: Coonan, Carmel Mary & Bier, Ada & Ballarin, Elena (eds.), La didattica delle lingue nel nuovo millennio. Le sfide dell’internazionalizzazione. Venezia: Edizioni Ca’Foscari, 615-626.

Genç, Esen & Özcan Dost, Betül & Güvendi Yalçin, Elif (2018). Using Movies with and without Subtitles in EFL Classrooms. ASOS Journal 72, 577-584.

Ghia, Elisa & Coletto, Valentina & Perego, Elisa & Pavesi, Maria (2018). The effect of subtitling modes on foreign language learning. An empirical investigation on Italian learners of English at university. In: Garzelli, Beatrice & Ghia, Elisa (eds.), Le lingue dei centri linguistici nelle sfide europee e internazionali: formazione e mercato del lavoro. Vol. 1. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, 285-301.

Hsu, Hui-Tzu (2018). Incidental professional vocabulary acquisition of EFL business learners. Effect of captioned video with glosses. JALT CALL Journal 14.2, 119-142.

Jelani, Nurul Aini Mohd & Boers, Frank (2018). Examining incidental vocabulary acquisition from captioned video. Does test modality matter? ITL – International Journal of Applied Linguistics 169.1, 169-190. Reprinted 2020 in: Webb, Stuart (ed.), Approaches to Learning, Testing and Researching L2 Vocabulary. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 169-190.

Joy Bhowmik, Showmik (2018). Impact of Using Subtitled Anime in Enriching Vocabulary Knowledge among Secondary ESL Students. BA Thesis: BRAC University, Dhaka.

Khazdouzian, Yashar (2018). The Effects of TV Series on Pragmatic Development. MA Thesis: Universitat de Barcelona.

Kokkonen, Maija (2018). Miltä tekstitykset tuntuvat? Vastaanottotutkimus A2-saksan lukio-opiskelijoiden tunne – ja oppimiskokemuksista ruutu – ja ohjelmatekstitetyn elokuvakatkelman katselun aikana. Wie fühlen sich Untertitel an? Eine Rezeptionsstudie zu Emotionen und Lernerfahrungen, die ein Filmausschnitt mit inter- bzw. intralingualen Untertiteln bei A2-Schüler*innen der finnischen gymnasialen Oberstufe hervorruft. Masterarbeit: Universität Tampere.

Kruger, Jan-Louis & Doherty, Stephen & Fox, Wendy & de Lissa, Peter (2018). Multimodal measurement of cognitive load during subtitle processing. Same-language subtitles for foreign-language viewers. In: Lacruz, Isabel & Jääskeläinen, Riitta (eds.), Innovation and Expansion in Translation Process Research. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 267-294.

Kusumawati, Eny (2018). The Effect of Watching English Movies with Subtitles on ESP Students’ Content and Vocabulary Comprehension. A Study Conducted at an Indonesian Polytechnic Engineering. SEEDs – Science, Engineering, Education, and Development Studies: Conference Series (Universitas Sebelas Maret) 2.2, 139-150.

Kusumawati, Eny & Hasan (2018). Implicit Instruction, Subtitles, Vocabulary and Listening Comprehension. Alphabet (Universitas Brawijaya) 1.2, 129-135.

Lail, Husnul (2018). The Effectiveness of Using English Movie with English Subtitles in Teaching Vocabulary at the Eighth Year Students of SMPN 1 Selong in the Academic Year of 2018/2019. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching 6.2, 100-107.

Lee, Hyunjeong & Mayer, Richard E. (2018). Fostering learning from instructional video in a second language. Applied Cognitive Psychology 32.5, 648-654.

Lestari, Rosmia Citra (2018). The Use of English Subtitle in Movie to Improve Students’ Vocabulary. An Experimental Study in Grade IX of SMPN 1 Gunungsari Academic Year 2015/2016. Academic Journal of Educational Sciences 1.1, 31-36.

Li, Chia-Yi (2018). The Use of VoiceTube for TEFL Listening Fluency. In: Shaffer, David E. (ed.), The 26th Korea TESOL International Conference – 2018. Extended Summaries. Seoul: Korea TESOL, 51-53.

Liu, Yinan & Jang, Bong Gee & Roy-Campbell, Zaline (2018). Optimum input mode in the modality and redundancy principles for university ESL students’ multimedia learning. Computers & Education 127, 190-200.

Maranzana, Stefano (2018). Animated Cartoons in the Language Classroom. Attitudes and Perceptions of Italian L2 Students. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Arizona, Tucson.

Marcucci, Giulia (2018). Input audiovisivo e attività miste nella didattica di lingua e traduzione russa per principianti. Il caso Masha e Orso. In: Garzelli, Beatrice & Ghia, Elisa (eds.), Le lingue dei centri linguistici nelle sfide europee e internazionali: formazione e mercato del lavoro. Vol. 1. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, 263-284.

Matielo, Rafael & Oliveira, Roberta Pires de & Baretta, Luciane (2018). Intralingual subtitles, interlingual subtitles, and L2 vocabulary. Developments from an exploratory study. Acta Scientiarum – Language and Culture 40, e36570.

Matielo, Rafael & Oliveira, Roberta Pires de & Baretta, Luciane (2018). Subtitling, Working Memory, and L2 Learning. A Correlational Study. Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada 18.3, 665-696.

Megawati, Fhuri & Nuroh, Ermawati Z. (2018). The Effect of English Subtitle in Zootopia Movie in Speaking SkillJournal of English Language Teaching (IKIP Mataram) 5.2, 94-100.

Metruk, Rastislav (2018). The Effects of Watching Authentic English Videos with and without Subtitles on Listening and Reading Skills of EFL Learners. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education14.6, 2545-2553.

Mirzaei, Maryam Sadat & Meshgi, Kourosh & Kawahara, Tatsuya (2018). Exploiting automatic speech recognition errors to enhance partial and synchronized caption for facilitating second language listening. Computer Speech & Language 49, 17-36.

Montero Perez, Maribel & Peters, Elke & Desmet, Piet (2018). Vocabulary learning through viewing video. The effect of two enhancement techniques. Computer Assisted Language Learning 31.1/2, 1-26.

Napikul, Supakorn & Cedar, Payung & Roongrattanakool, Dusadee (2018). The Effects of Film Subtitles on English Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature7.6, 104-111.

Nekoui, Leyla (2018). Investigate Effect of Video Captioning on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition. International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers/International Journal of Zambrut 1.1, 150-160.

Park, Mae-Ran (2018). Effects of Subtitled Movies on Learners’ Productive and Receptive Vocabulary. In: TEEM 2018. STEM-KASEE-Seoul SETA 2018 Joint International Conference. Proceedings. Seoul: Society for Teaching English through Media, 14-18.

Permatasari, Dea Utami (2018). The Effectiveness of Movie Subtitle to Improve Reading Comprehension. Sarjana Thesis: Ar-Raniry State Islamic University, Banda Aceh.

Rao, Reema & Bensen, Hanife (2018). The Effects of Using Subtitled Movies on Vocabulary Improvement. Beau Bassin: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Sadiku, Alisa (2018). The Role of Subtitled Movies on Students’ Vocabulary Development. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research 42.1, 212-221.

Sánchez de la Viña Rodríguez, Inés (2018). The Acquisition of Formulaic Language through Subtitles. A Study across Genres. Master’s Thesis: Universitat de Barcelona.

So, Suk & Lee, Je-Young & Hwang, Chee-Bok (2018). Effects of Caption-Utilized English Classes on Primary School Students’ Character Recognition and Vocabulary Ability. Journal of the Korea Contents Association 18.7, 423-431. (In Korean with English abstract)

Topkaraoglu, Mert & Nisanci, Sinan (2018). The Role of Subtitles in EFL Learners’ Bottom-Up Processing Skills in Listening. International Journal of Language Academy 24 (6.3), 347-361.

Toscano-Fuentes, Carmen María & Julián de Vega, Concha (2018). Vídeos musicales en el aula de inglés de primaria para la mejora de la fluidez lectora. Tejuelo 28, 43-66.

Wilhelm, Mirte (2018). Subtitles and vocabulary acquisition. The effect of type of subtitles and proficiency on vocabulary acquisition. MA Thesis: University of Groningen.

Wisniewska, Natalia & Mora, Joan C. (2018). Pronunciation Learning through Captioned Videos. In: Levis, John (ed.), Proceedings of the 9th Annual Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference. Ames: Iowa State University, 204-215.

Yang, Jimijin (2018). Use of L1 and L2 Subtitles for Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Second Language. Focusing on Word Frequency. STEM Journal 19.3, 127-147.

Yeldham, Michael (2018). Viewing L2 captioned videos: what’s in it for the listener? Computer Assisted Language Learning 31.4, 367-389.

Yoon, Sangdon (2018). Learners’ prior learning experience of subtitles and its effect on reading competence and listening competence. Using subtitles for The Newsroom Season 1. STEM Journal 19.3, 65-82. (In Korean with English abstract)

Acaro Jiménez, Lorena Mishel (2019). The effects of watching videos with and without English subtitles as a supplementary material to foster the writing productive skill of EFL in a high school. A comparative study. Trabajo de titulación: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.

Al-Zahrani, Fahd Kamis J. (2019). The Relationship between Subtitled Video Sharing and Vocabulary Learning among EFL Students at Secondary Stage. Egyptian Journal of Specialized Studies 21, 28-48.

Anas, Farah Aina & Zakaria, Nur Yasmin Khairani (2019). ESL Learners’ Perceptions on English Subtitled Audio-Visual Materials. Creative Education 10.12, 2796-2803.

Andi, Seyed Taghi & Darvishi, Sanaz (2019). A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Persian vs. English Subtitled Movies on Listening Comprehension Ability among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners. Journal of Teaching English Language Studies 7.3, 43-61.

Angerbauer, Katrin & Adel, Heike & Vu, Ngoc Thang (2019). Automatic Compression of Subtitles with Neural Networks and its Effect on User Experience. In: INTERSPEECH 2019. Proceedings. Baixas: ISCA, 594-598.

Azizi, Syazwani & Aziz, Azlina Abdul (2019). The Effect of Intralingual Caption on Students’ Vocabulary Learning. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education and Society 1.3, 12-22.

Barnau, A. & Dzuganova, B. (2019). English Language Teaching Through Captioning Videos at Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Slovakia. In: Morozova, E. B. (ed.), Magija INNO: Integrativnyye tendentsii v lingvistike i lingvodidaktike. The Magic of Innovation: Integrative Trends in Linguistics and Foreign Language Teaching. Vol. 2. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo MGIMO-Universitet, 481-484.

Bataineh, Ruba Fahmi & Al-refa’i, Adel Mohammad (2019). The potential of TED talks for developing prospective United Nations police monitors’ listening performance. Lublin Studies in Modern Languages and Literature43.3, 141-153.

Chan, Wing Shan & Kruger, Jan-Louis & Doherty, Stephen (2019). Comparing the impact of automatically generated and corrected subtitles on cognitive load and learning in a first- and second-language educational context. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies 18 (2019), 237-272.

Chen, Ming-Puu & Wang, Li-Chun & Zou, Di & Lin, Shu-Yuan & Xie, Haoran (2019). Effects of caption and gender on junior high students’ EFL learning from iMap-enhanced contextualized learning. Computers & Education 140, article 103602.

Chmielewska-Molik, Kamila (2019). Fremdsprachenlernen mit Fernsehserien. Subjektive Lernertheorien. Doctoral Thesis: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznan.

Cintrón Valentín, Myrna C. (2019). The Effects of Form Focused Instruction and Captioning on Second Language Development. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Michigan.

Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna & García-Amaya, Lorenzo & Ellis, Nick C. (2019). Captioning and grammar learning in the L2 Spanisch classroom. Language Learning Journal 47.4, 439-459.

Cokely, Melissa & Muñoz, Carmen (2019). Captioned Video, Vocabulary and Visual Prompts. An Exploratory Study. In: Herrero, Carmen & Vanderschelden, Isabelle (eds.), Using Film and Media in the Language Classroom. Reflections on Research-led Teaching. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 61-75.

Das, Nigamananda & Vashisth, Shivani (2019). The Influence of L2 Vocabulary Learning on Digital Formats. Juni Khyat 9.9, 42-47.

Durbahn, Marion (2019). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from documentary viewing. A study on the role of captions. Árboles y Rizomas 1.1, 75-96.

Dzuganová, Bozena (2019). Teaching Medical English through Professional Captioning Videos. Journal of Language and Cultural Education 7.2, 95-107.

Fang, Fang & Zhang, Yuqing & Fang, Yuan (2019). A Comparative Study of the Effect of Bilingual Subtitles and English Subtitles on College English Teaching. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala 66, 59-74.

Fernández Silva, Paula (2019). Foreign Language Learning. The Role of Interlingual and Intralingual Subtitles. BA Thesis: Universitat de Barcelona.

Fiaz, Iram (2019). Impact of Subtitles on the Listening Skills of English Language Learners. MPhil Thesis: Islamia University of Bahawalpur.

Frumuselu, Anca Daniela (2019). ‘A Friend in Need Is a Film Indeed’. Teaching Colloquial Expressions with Subtitled Television Series. In: Herrero, Carmen & Vanderschelden, Isabelle (eds.), Using Film and Media in the Language Classroom. Reflections on Research-led Teaching. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 92-107.

Furaidah, Asni & Ngadiso & Asrori, Muh. (2019). Watching Video with English Subtitle As an Alternative to Improve Reading Skill. English Education Journal (Universitas Sebelas Maret) 7.2, 257-263.

Gass, Susan & Winke, Paula & Isbell, Daniel R. & Ahn, Jieun (2019). How captions help people learn languages. A working-memory, eye-tracking study. Language Learning & Technology 23.2, 84-104.

Gesa Vidal, Ferran (2019). L1/L2 Subtitled TV Series and EFL Learning. A Study on Vocabulary Acquisition and Content Comprehension at Different Proficiency Levels. Doctoral Dissertation: Universitat de Barcelona.

Hariffin, Azman & Said, Nur Ehsan Mohd (2019). The Effects of Captioned Videos on Primary ESL Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition in a Malaysian Rural Setting. In: 2nd International Conference on Humanities, Education and Society (ICHES 2019). Proceedings. Kota Bharu: Edusage Network, 494-502; reprinted 2019 in: International Journal of Humanities, Philosophy, and Language 2.7, 23-71.

He, Long (2019). How Do Different Keyword Captioning Strategies Impact on Students’ Performance in Oral and Written Production Tasks? A Pilot Study. EUROCALL Review 27.1, 14-23.

Hwang, Gwo-Jen & Hsu, Ting-Chia & Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan (2019). Impacts of Different Smartphone Caption/Subtitle Mechanisms on English Listening Performance and Perceptions of Students with Different Learning Styles. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 35.4/5, 333-344.

Jaber, Reem Ali & Kesli Dollar, Yesim (2019). A meta-analysis of the effect of bimodal subtitling on vocabulary learning among adult EFL learners. Focus on ELT Journal 1.1, 43-52.

Kang, Eunyoung (2019). Enhancing Korean EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning and Listening Comprehension Through Video Captions. STEM Journal 20.2, 91-108.

Karlsson, Monica (2019). Idiomatic Mastery in a First and Second Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. (Especially chapter 3: Do Multimodal and Visualization Techniques Enhance Students’ Comprehension and Retention of L2 Idioms?)

Kim, Na-Young (2019). Captions and Subtitles: Effects of Different Modes of Text Aids on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Development and Reading Comprehension. New Korean Journal of English Language and Literature 61.3, 155-178.

Kim, Na-Young (2019). Effects of Captioning Order on EFL Listening and Reading. Should Captions Be First or Second? English Language & Literature Teaching 25.4, 1-22.

Kim, Na-Young (2019). L1 First or L2 First? Effects of Different Subtitling Order on Listening and Speaking Skills. English Language Teaching (Pan-Korea English Teachers Association) 31.4, 95-114.

Kim, Na-Young (2019). Native Language or Target Language? Effects of Different Types of Subtitles on Productive Skills. Studies in English Education 24.3, 337-363.

Kim, Na-Young (2019). A Study on the Differential Effects of Subtitling Modes – Interlingual, Intralingual, and Bilingual Subtitling – on Video Comprehension. STEM Journal 20.3, 1-23.

Lautenbacher, Olli Philippe (2019). Sous-titrage et acquisition de L2: quand l’audiovisuel se fait scriptovisuel. In: Ogea Pozo, María del Mar & Rodríguez Rodríguez, Francisco (eds.), Insights into audiovisual and comic translation. Changing perspectives on films, comics and videogames. Córdoba: UCOPress, 141-161.

Liu, Yinan (2019). Multimedia Input Modes, the Modality Principle, and the Redundancy Principle for University ESL Students’ Learning. Ph.D. Thesis: Syracuse University.

Matthew, G. D. (2019). Measuring the cognitive load induced by subtitled audiovisual texts in an educational context. Ph.D. Thesis: North-West University, Vanderbijlpark.

Montero Perez, Maribel (2019). Pre-learning vocabulary before viewing captioned video: an eye-tracking study. Language Learning Journal 47.4, 460-478.

Mora, Joan C. & Cerviño-Povedano, Eva (2019). The Effects of Bimodal L2 Input on the Processing of Function Words by Spanish EFL Learners. An Eye-Tracking Study. In: Herrero, Carmen & Vanderschelden, Isabelle (eds.), Using Film and Media in the Language Classroom. Reflections on Research-led Teaching. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 76-91.

Okar, Nazita & Shahidy, Seyed Hamidreza (2019). Using Pictures of Movie Conversations with Input Enhancement in Subtitles for Developing Speaking of Iranian EFL Intermediate Learners. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies 7.3, 93-104.

Pavesi, Maria & Perego, Elisa & Ghia, Elisa & Coletto, Valentina (2019). Assessing Subtitling in a Dubbing Country. An Empirical Investigation on Learner-Viewers. Studi Italiani di Linguistica Teorica e Applicata 48.1, 5-26.

Peters, Elke (2019). The Effect of Imagery and On-Screen Text on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning from Audiovisual Input. TESOL Quarterly 53.4, 1008-1032.

Pujadas Jorba, Geòrgia (2019). Language Learning through Extensive TV Viewing. A study with adolescent EFL learners. Doctoral Dissertation: Universitat de Barcelona.

Pujadas, Geòrgia & Muñoz, Carmen (2019). Extensive viewing of captioned and subtitled TV series. A study of L2 vocabulary learning by adolescents. Language Learning Journal 47.4, 479-496.

Qasim, Asil & Yahiaoui, Rashid (2019). The Role of Subtitling and Dubbing in Arabic Vocabulary Acquisition. A Contrastive Study. Arab World English Journal for Translation & Literary Studies 3.1, 74-86.

Ramsin, Araya & Mayall, Hayley (2019). Examining the Effects of Different Multimedia Learning Environments on the Learning Outcomes of Second Language Learners. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia28.3, 307-330.

Sarem, Saeid Najafi & Marashi, Hamid (2019). The Effect of Input Modality and Sensory Mode on L2 Listening Fatigue. A Case of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners. Journal of Modern Research in English Language Studies6.3, 57-82.

Sinyashina, Ekaterina (2019). The Effect of Repetition on Incidental Legal Vocabulary Learning through Long-Term Exposure to Authentic Videos. ESP Today 7.1, 44-67.

Sit, Helena Hing-wa & Guo, Sijia (2019). An Exploration of Design Principles to Enhance Students’ L2 Acquisition in a Flipped Class. In: Tso, Anna Wing-bo (ed.), Digital Humanities and New Ways of Teaching. Singapore: Springer Nature, 111-131.

Suárez, Maria del Mar & Gesa, Ferran (2019). Learning vocabulary with the support of sustained exposure to captioned video. Do proficiency and aptitude make a difference? Language Learning Journal 47.4, 497-517.

Tajgozari, Mostafa (2019). The effect of watching captioned TV series on speaking accuracy of Iranian advanced EFL learners. Global Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 9.3, 157-166.

Teng, (Mark) Feng (2019). The effects of video caption types and advance organizers on incidental L2 collocation learning. Computers & Education 142, article 103655.

Teng, Feng (2019). Incidental vocabulary learning for primary school students. The effects of L2 caption type and word exposure frequency. The Australian Educational Researcher 46.1, 113-136.

Teng, Feng (2019). Maximizing the potential of captions for primary school ESL students’ comprehension of English-language videos. Computer Assisted Language Learning 32.7, 665-691.

Tragant Mestres, Elsa & Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana (2019). Young EFL learners’ processing of multimodal input. Examining learners’ eye movements. System 80, 212-223.

Ulfa, Maria (2019). The Use of Bimodal Subtitle on English Movie to Improve the Students’ Vocabulary Mastery. Graduating Paper: Institut Agama Islam Negeri, Salatiga.

Ulviana, Isma & Ashari, Ali & Rahmati, Nuse Aliyah (2019). The Effect of Full Video Captioning on EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Jurnal Penelitian, Pendidikan, dan Pembelajaran (Universitas Islam Malang) 14.11.

Vanderplank, Robert (2019). ‘Gist watching can only take you so far’: attitudes, strategies and changes in behaviour in watching films with captions. Language Learning Journal 47.4, 407-423.

Wang, Yangting (Tina) (2019). Effects of L1/L2 Captioned TV Programs on Students’ Vocabulary Learning and Comprehension. CALICO Journal 36.3, 204-224.

Yürük, Nurcihan (2019). Dual Coding Theory and Subtitles. Encoding Strategy in Vocabulary Learning. Ines Journal – Journal of International Education Science 6.20, 38-50.

Alharthi, Thamer (2020). Can Adults Learn Vocabulary through Watching Subtitled Movies? An Experimental Corpus-Based Approach. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies 9.3, 219-230.

Ambele, Eric A. & Abam, Fedelis T. (2020). Enhancing Pronunciation Learning through Intralingual Movie Subtitling in a Thai University Context. Rangsit Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 7.2, 60-69.

Anh, Vo Thi Xuan & Hoai, Pham Thi (2020). Teaching Vocabulary for Non-English Major Freshmen through English Subtitled Videos at Van Lang University. Công Thu’o’ng (Vietnam Trade and Industry Review) 29/30 (December), 271-278.

Arabiana, Elaiza Flor S. & Malifer, Dayvin Adrian Ember A. & Betonio, Helen R. (2020). Video Cartoons and Task-Induced Involvement. Effects to Pupils’ L2 Incidental Literacy Acquisition. English Language Teaching Educational Journal 3.2, 151-162.

Arifani, Yudhi (2020). Cartoon Video-Assisted Learning. An Investigation into the Acquisition of EFL Children’s Incidental Vocabulary. CALL-EJ 21.2, 17-31.

Balci, Leanna Fry & Rich, Peter J. & Roberts, Brian (2020). The effects of subtitles and captions on an interactive information literacy tutorial for English majors at a Turkish university. Journal of Academic Librarianship 46, article 102078.

Barabas, Cris Delatado (2020). Intentionality and Vocabulary Acquisition in an EFL Context. The Use of Theme-based Subtitled Video Clips. MA Thesis: University College London.

Baranowska, Karolina (2020). Learning most with least effort: subtitles and cognitive load. ELT Journal 74.2, 105-115.

Corpuz, Leah Joyce R. (2020). Anime with English Subtitles. Tool in Expanding Second Language Learners’ Vocabulary and Syntactic Complexity. International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning 7.5, 1-13.

Dumlao, Kenneth Christopher S. & Alfonso, Ruth C. & Paguirigan, Elgin S. & Subia, Gener S. (2020). The Efficacy of Bimodal Subtitling in Improving the Listening Comprehension of English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences 5.6, 2196-2201.

Fievez, Isabeau & Montero Perez, Maribel & Cornillie, Frederik & Desmet, Piet (2020). Vocabulary Learning Through Viewing Captioned or Subtitled Videos and the Role of Learner- and Word-Related Factors. CALICO Journal 37.3, 233-253.

Gouleti, Aikaterini & Dimitriadis, Giorgos & Kokonis, Michalis (2020). Exploring the Educational Potentials of Language Learning with Netflix Tool. An Eye-Tracking Study. Ex-centric Narratives. Journal of Anglophone Literature, Culture and Media 4, 113-136.

Guo, Sijia & Sit, Helena & Chen, Shen (2020). Effects of captioned videos on learners’ comprehension. Journal of Global Literacies, Technologies, and Emerging Pedagogies 6.1, 1062-1082.

Hsieh, Yufen (2020). Effects of video captioning on EFL vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. Computer Assisted Language Learning 33.5-6, 567-589.

Kam, Emily Fen & Liu, Yeu-Ting & Tseng, Wen-Ta (2020). Effects of modality preference and working memory capacity on captioned videos in enhancing L2 listening outcomes. ReCALL 32.2, 213-230.

Khazdouzian, Yashar & Celaya, María Luz & Barón, Júlia (2020). When Watching is not Enough. The Effects of Captions on L2 Pragmatics Acquisition and Awareness. RAEL – Revista Electrónica de Lingüística Aplicada19.2, 90-107.

Kim, Na-Young (2020). The effects of the use of captions on low- and high-level EFL learners’ speaking performance. Linguistic Research 37, Special Edition (September), 135-161.

Kim, Na-Young (2020). Languages on the Screen. A Study on Reversed Subtitling and EFL Receptive Language Skills. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning 23.1, 37-66.

Kim, Na-Young (2020). The Ordering Effects of Captions on Korean Aviation Students’ Self-confidence, Interest, and Motivation in English Learning. Journal of the Korea Academic-Industrial Cooperation Society 21.4, 362-373.

Kim, Sung-Min & Lee, Eun-Joo (2020). The Effects of Aural and Textual Input Enhancement Through Movie Clips on the Korean EFL Students’ Learning of Parallelism Rules. Modern English Education 21.4, 45-57.

Kruger-Roux, Helena & Angu, Pineteh, E. (2020). Bimodal and Unimodal Comprehension and Reception of Discipline-Specific Audiovisual Texts Among Students in a Faculty of Health Sciences. International Journal of Learning in Higher Education 27.2, 63-77.

Lee, Minjin & Révész, Andrea (2020). Promoting Grammatical Development through Captions and Textual Enhancement in Multimodal Input-Based Tasks. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 42.3, 625-651.

Liao, Sixin & Kruger, Jan-Louis & Doherty, Stephen (2020). The impact of monolingual and bilingual subtitles on visual attention, cognitive load, and comprehension. Journal of Specialised Translation 33, 70-98.

Majuddin, Elvenna (2020). Incidental and intentional acquisition of multiword expressions from audio-visual input. The effects of typographically enhanced captions and repetition. Ph.D. Thesis: Victoria University of Wellington.

Matthew, Gordon (2020). The effect of adding same-language subtitles to recorded lectures for non-native, English speakers in e-learning environments. Research in Learning Technology 28, article 2340.

Nakamura, Sachiko & Spring, Ryan (2020). How Watching Subtitled YouTube Videos Can Affect EFL Listening and Reading Abilities. Teaching English through Multimedia – ATEM Journal 25, 3-16.

Nasimi, Shabnam (2020). Vocabulary Learning Promotion through Watching Subtitled Movies among EFL Learners in Iran. In: 4th International Conference on Language, Literature, History and Civilization. September 15, 2020. Tbilisi, Georgia. Proceedings.

Nguyen, Ha Dinh Nhu (2020). Understanding EFL Students’ Use of Listening Strategies in Watching English Captioned Movies. Research Journal of English 5.3, 97-114.

Nguyen, Dinh Nhu Ha & Tran, Quoc Thao (2020). Non-English Majors’ Attitudes towards the Use of English Captioned Videos in English Class. TNU Journal of Science and Technology 225. 12, 77-84.

Özgen, Mehmet & Gündüz, Nazli (2020). Authentic Captioned Sitcom as Listening Comprehension Material in English Language Teaching. ELT Research Journal 9.2, 167-193.

Pattemore, Anastasia & Muñoz, Carmen (2020). Learning L2 constructions from captioned audio-visual exposure. The effect of learner-related factors. System 93, article 102303.

Pattemore, Anastasia & Suárez, Maria del Mar & Muñoz, Carmen (2020). Exploring L2 TV mode preferences and perceptions of learning. In: Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete et al. (eds.), CALL for widening participation. Short papers from EUROCALL 2020. Voillans:, 272-278.

Pujadas, Geòrgia & Muñoz, Carmen (2020). Examining Adolescent EFL Learners’ TV Viewing Comprehension through Captions and Subtitles. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 42.3, 551-575.

Rahim, Nur Syairah & Afnizul, Afina Nazira (2020). Using Captioned Videos in Teaching English Vocabulary. A Case Study on a Primary School Teacher. In: Persidangan Antarabangsa Sains Sosial & Kemanusiaan – PASAK5 2020. Proceedings. Kajang: Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor, 234-242.

Ramli, Harry Azhar (2020). The Use of ‘Inside Out’ Movie’s Subtitles to Improve Reading (A Case Study at SMK-PP Saree). B.Ed. Thesis: Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh.

Rojas Encalada, María A. & Arteaga Sarmiento, Magaly (2020). Developing vocabulary of hospitality and tourism in university students. Subtitled videos for lexicon generation. In: Soto, Sandy T. (ed.), Understanding EFL students’ learning through classroom research. Experiences of teacher-researchers. Machala: Ediciones UTMACH, 9-34.

Romero-Villamil, Jorge Luis & Guzman-Martinez, Claudia Patricia (2020). Learning Vocabulary Through Instructional Subtitled Videos. GiST Education and Learning Research Journal 21, 7-25.

Sanjadireja, Roki Ranjani (2020). Subtitle in Teaching Pronunciation with Video. Indonesian Journal of English Teaching 9.1, 67-85.

Sinyashina, Ekaterina (2020). ‘Incidental + Intentional’ vs ‘Intentional + Incidental’ Vocabulary Learning. Which is More Effective? Complutense Journal of English Studies 28, 93-108.

Sinyashina, Ekaterina (2020). Watching Captioned Authentic Videos for Incidental Vocabulary Learning. Is It Effective? Nordic Journal of English Studies 19.1, 28-64.

Soler Pardo, Betlem (2020). Subtitling and dubbing as teaching resources for learning English as a foreign language using Clipflair software. Lenguaje y Textos 51, 41-56.

Trujillo Erazo, Tania Patricia (2020). Subtitled and Unsubtitled Movie and Listening Comprehension. Trabajo de Graduación: Universidad Técnica de Ambato.

Utomo, Dias Tiara Putri (2020). Improving Vocabulary Mastery Using Intralingual Subtitle and Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy. Journal of English Teaching Adi Buana 5.1, 31-39.

Wisniewska, Natalia (2020). Pronunciation learning through captioned videos. Gains in L2 speech perception and production. Doctoral Thesis: Universitat de Barcelona.

Wisniewska, Natalia & Mora, Joan C. (2020). Can Captioned Video Benefit Second Language Pronunciation? Studies in Second Language Acquisition 42.3, 599-624.

Yang, Peter (2020). The Cognitive and Psychological Effects of YouTube Video Captions and Subtitles on Higher-Level German Language Learners. In: Freiermuth, Mark R. & Zarrinabadi, Nourollah (eds.), Technology and the Psychology of Second Language Learners and Users. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 83-112.

Ahrabi Fakhr, Masoud & Borzabadi Farahani, Davood & Khomeijani Farahani, Ali Akbar (2021). Incidental Vocabulary Learning and Retention from Audiovisual Input and Factors Affecting Them. English Teaching & Learning 45.2, 167-188.

Aldukhayel, Dukhayel (2021). The effects of captions on L2 learners’ comprehension of vlogs. Language Learning & Technology 25.2, 178-191.

Alm, Antonie (2021). Language Learning with Netflix. Extending out-of-class L2 viewing. In: Chang, Maiga et al. (eds.), IEEE 21st International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2021). Proceedings. Los Alamitos: IEEE, 260-262.

Alm, Antonie & Watanabe, Yuki (2021). Functional caption literacy development through intra-formal L2 viewing. Aula Abierta 50.2, 635-642.

Alobaid, Azzam (2021). ICT multimedia learning affordances: role and impact on ESL learners’ writing accuracy development. Heliyon 7.7, article e07517.

Alsadoon, Reem (2021). Closed-captioning and the learning of grammatical structures for EFL learners. Zarqa Journal for Research and Studies in Humanities 21.3, 649-661.

Awae, Fareed & Abuhassna, Hassan (2021). The Effect of Employing Animated Films in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL) to Non-Native Speakers in Thailand Schools. Innovative Teaching and Learning Journal5.2, 1-10.

Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna C. & García-Amaya, Lorenzo (2021). Investigating Textual Enhancement and Captions in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 43.5, 1068-1093.

Dizon, Gilbert & Thanyawatpokin, Benjamin (2021). Language learning with Netflix. Exploring the effects of dual subtitles on vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. CALL-EJ 22.3, 52-65.

Ekinci, Mithat & Sanverdi, Mehmet (2021). The Effects of Using Captioned Videos on Vocabulary Achievement Levels of EFL Students. In: Yilmaz, Hasan & Yücel, Erdinç & Öztürk, Mustafa Serkan (eds.), Yabanci Dil Ögretimine Genel Bir Bakis V – A General Perspective on Foreign Language Teaching V. Konya: Çizgi Kitabevi, 92-100.

Fievez, Isabeau & Montero Perez, Maribel & Cornillie, Frederik & Desmet, Piet (2021). Promoting incidental vocabulary learning through watching a French Netflix series with glossed captions. Computer Assisted Language Learning

Fikri & Suriaman, Aminah & Rita, Ferry (2021). English Subtitle Video in Teaching Vocabulary to the Junior High School Students in Palu. In: Subiyantoro, Slamet et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Arts Language and Culture (ICALC 2020). Amsterdam: Atlantis Press, 76-86.

García-Amaya, Lorenzo & Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna C. (2021). The Effects of Textually Enhanced Captions on Written Elicited Imitation in L2 Grammar. Modern Language Journal 105.4, 919-935.

Goeman, Katie & De Grez, Luc & Deschacht, Nick (2021). Fostering Learning from Instructional Video. Effect of Subtitle Language on Content Recall. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 30.3, 233-255.

González-Vera, Pilar (2021). Building bridges between audiovisual translation and English for Specific Purposes. Ibérica 41, 83-102.

Kaderoglu, Kadir & Romeu Esquerré, Fernando (2021). Captions in L2 Learning from Language Teachers’ Perspective. What Do Teachers Believe and Do? CALL-EJ 22.3, 86-106.

Lai, Hongling & Wang, Dianjian & Ou, Xiancai (2021). The Effects of Different Caption Modes on Chinese English Learners’ Content and Vocabulary Comprehension. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching 11.4, 54-68.

Lee, Minjin & Révész, Andrea (2021). The Role of Working Memory in Attentional Allocation and Grammatical Development under Textually-enhanced, Unenhanced and No Captioning Conditions. Journal for the Psychology of Language Learning 3.1, 6-25.

Lee, Ping-Jung & Liu, Yeu-Ting & Tseng, Wen-Ta (2021). One size fits all? In search of the desirable caption display for second language learners with different caption reliance in listening comprehension. Language Teaching Research 25.3, 400-430.

Mahzari, Mohammad & Hussein, Mohamed Saad Mahmoud & Ethleb, Hamza & Omar, Abdulfattah (2021). Learning Arabic as a Second Language. An Exploration of the Efficacy of Arabic Subtitles by Netflix Viewers. Asian ESP Journal 17.3.2, 174-197.

Majuddin, Elvenna & Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna & Boers, Frank (2021). Incidental Acquisition of Multiword Expressions through Audiovisual Materials. The Role of Repetition and Typographic Enhancement. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 43.5, 985-1008.

Mazahery, Shahab & Hashemian, Mahmood & Alipour, Javad (2021). Vocabulary Learning by Iranian Adult L2 Learners via Extensive Viewing of Subtitled and Captioned TV Series. Journal of Teaching Language Skills 40.1, 83-115.

Medona, J. Daphne (2021). The Influence of Subtitled Movies/Series on ESL Learners’ Vocabulary Development. Bodhi International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Science 5, Special Issue 1, 32-40.

Mohsen, Mohammed Ali & Mahdi, Hassan Saleh (2021). Partial versus full captioning mode to improve L2 vocabulary acquisition in a mobile-assisted language learning setting: words pronunciation domain. Journal of Computing in Higher Education 33.2, 524-543.

Moon, So-Jin (2021). Effects of Using Captioned Pop Culture Media on Foreign Language Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition. Ed.D. Thesis: Binghamton University.

Mulyani & Chaira, Salwa (2021). The Use of Film Clips and Video Media with Subtitles in English Vocabulary Instruction. Jurnal Dedikasi Pendidikan 5.1, 61-70.

Muñoz, Carmen & Pujadas, Geòrgia & Pattemore, Anastasiia (2021). Audio-visual input for learning L2 vocabulary and grammatical constructions. 

Puimège, Eva & Montero Perez, Maribel & Peters, Elke (2021). Promoting L2 acquisition of multiword units through textually enhanced audiovisual input. An eye-tracking study.

Qorimah, Ana Nurul (2021). The Use of English Subtitled Movies in Teaching Vocabulary to Second Grade Students of MTs Al-Madaniyah Mataram in Academic Year 2020/2021. Bachelor’s Thesis: Muhammadiyah University of Mataram.

Rahmawanti, Movi Riana & Larasati, Tasya Murti & Rahayu, Nurhadianty (2021). Student’s Perception on the Use of English-Subtitled Movies toward Learner’s Spoken Grammar Understanding. Wiralodra English Journal5.2, 39-49.

Sari, Tika Yulanda & Ariyanto, Sugeng & Wahjuningsih, Eka (2021). Using Animated Video Caption to Improve the Tenth Grade Students’ Reading Comprehension Achievement. EFL Education Journal 8.3, 31-39.

Semahi, Nour El Houda (2021). Investigating the Role of Bimodal Subtitled English Movies in Enhancing Students’ Vocabulary Learning. Master’s Thesis: Mohamed Kheider University, Biskra.

Sergeeva, Maria (2021). Subtitled Audiovisual Materials in the FL Classroom. Teachers’ Perspective. MA Thesis: Universitat de Barcelona.

Teng, Mark Feng (2021). Language Learning Through Captioned Videos. New York: Routledge.

Valizadeh, Mohammadreza (2021). Effects of L1 and L2 Subtitled English Movies on Pre-Intermediate Learners’ Comprehension and Speaking Abilities. St. Theresa Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 7.2, 45-69.

Vulchanova, Mila & Lervåg, Ingvild Kjølstad (2021). Role of Subtitles in L2 Acquisition and Comprehension. A Pilot Study of Hearing-Impaired Students. Languages 6.1, article 17.

Wi, Injung (2021). Learning New Words from TED Talks. Strategic use of L1 subtitles and L2 captions. MA Thesis: Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Zengin, Bugra (2021). How Best to Use Audio/Subtitle Combinations in the Use of Films for Nonnative Learners of English. In: Turel, Vehbi (ed.), Design Solutions for Adaptive Hypermedia Listening Software. Hershey: IGI Global, 45-61.

Agustin, Zetry (2022). The Influence of English Subtitled Cartoon Videos in Teaching Listening Ability. Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis: Universitas Islam Negeri Bengkulu.

Agustin, Zetry & Akbarjono, Ali & Utami, Valisneria (2022). The Influence of English Subtitled Cartoon Videos in Teaching Listening Ability. A Quasi Experimental at Eight Grade of SMPN 05 Bengkulu in Academic Year 2021/2022. JPT – Jurnal Pendidikan Tematik 3.2, 13-19.

Baranowska, Karolina (2022). Exposure to English as a foreign language through subtitled videos. The impact of subtitles and modality on cognitive load, comprehension, and vocabulary acquisition. Ph.D. Thesis: Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.

Barón, Júlia & Celaya, M. Luz (2022). ‘May I do something for you?’: The effects of audio-visual material (captioned and non-captioned) on EFL pragmatic learning. Language Teaching Research 26.2, 238-255.

Bostanci, Hanife Bensen (2022). The Impact of Subtitled Films on English as a Second Language Students Vocabulary Retention. Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers 13.1, 101-109.

Castillo, Diego (2022). Incidental Vocabulary Learning Through Captioned Audiovisual Material. An Eye-Tracking Study. MA Thesis: Texas Tech University, Lubbock.

Chan, Wing Shan & Kruger, Jan-Louis & Doherty, Stephen (2022). An investigation of subtitles as learning support in university education. Journal of Specialised Translation 38, 155-179.

Chi, Chen & Chen, Hao-Jan Howard & Tseng, Wen-Ta & Liu, Yeu-Ting (2022). Efficacy of different presentation modes for L2 video comprehension. Full versus partial display of verbal and nonverbal input. ReCALL

Dang, Thi Ngoc Yen & Lu, Cailing & Webb, Stuart (2022). Incidental Learning of Collocations in an Academic Lecture Through Different Input Modes. Language Learning 72.3, 728-764.

Forero Díaz, Mónica & Moreno, Leidy J. & Bernal, Jonny F. & Torres, José D. & Martínez, Angie L. (2022). Los subtítulos integrados deícticos favorecen la comprensión oral en el aprendizaje de francés como lengua extranjera cuando se usan en material didáctico audiovisual. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal 24.2, 270-287.

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